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      Attenuation of myocardial fibrosis with curcumin is mediated by modulating expression of angiotensin II AT1/AT2 receptors and ACE2 in rats

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          Abstract

          Curcumin is known to improve cardiac function by balancing degradation and synthesis of collagens after myocardial infarction. This study tested the hypothesis that inhibition of myocardial fibrosis by curcumin is associated with modulating expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to Ang II infusion (500 ng/kg/min) using osmotic minipumps for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and curcumin (150 mg/kg/day) was fed by gastric gavage during Ang II infusion. Compared to the animals with Ang II infusion, curcumin significantly decreased the mean arterial blood pressure during the course of the observation. The protein level of the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor was reduced, and the Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor was up-regulated, evidenced by an increased ratio of the AT2 receptor over the AT1 receptor in the curcumin group (1.2±0.02%) vs in the Ang II group (0.7±0.03%, P<0.05). These changes were coincident with less locally expressed AT1 receptor and enhanced AT2 receptor in the intracardiac vessels and intermyocardium. Along with these modulations, curcumin significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and alpha smooth muscle actin-expressing myofibroblasts, which were accompanied by reduced expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and phosphorylated-Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was inhibited, and tissue fibrosis was attenuated, as demonstrated by less extensive collagen-rich fibrosis. Furthermore, curcumin increased protein level of ACE2 and enhanced its expression in the intermyocardium relative to the Ang II group. These results suggest that curcumin could be considered as an add-on therapeutic agent in the treatment of fibrosis-derived heart failure patient who is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy.

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          Most cited references 21

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          AT 2 receptors: Functional relevance in cardiovascular disease

          The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is intricately involved in normal cardiovascular homeostasis. Excessive stimulation by the octapeptide angiotensin II contributes to a range of cardiovascular pathologies and diseases via angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. On the other hand, tElsevier Inc.he angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) is thought to counter-regulate AT1R function. In this review, we describe the enhanced expression and function of AT2R in various cardiovascular disease settings. In addition, we illustrate that the RAS consists of a family of angiotensin peptides that exert cardiovascular effects that are often distinct from those of Ang II. During cardiovascular disease, there is likely to be an increased functional importance of AT2R, stimulated by Ang II, or even shorter angiotensin peptide fragments, to limit AT1R-mediated overactivity and cardiovascular pathologies.
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            Preparation and characterization of water-soluble albumin-bound curcumin nanoparticles with improved antitumor activity.

            Curcumin (CCM), a yellow natural polyphenol extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has potent anti-cancer properties as has been demonstrated in various human cancer cells. However, the widespread clinical application of this efficient agent in cancer and other diseases has been limited by its poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability. In this study, we prepared novel CCM-loaded human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles (CCM-HSA-NPs) for intravenous administration using albumin bound technology. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) investigation confirmed a narrow size distribution in the 130-150nm range. Furthermore, CCM-HSA-NPs showed much greater water solubility (300-fold) than free CCM, and on storage, the biological activity of CCM-HSA-NPs was preserved with negligible activity loss. In vivo distributions and vascular endothelial cells transport studies demonstrated the superiority of CCM-HSA-NPs over CCM. Amounts of CCM in tumors after treatment with CCM-HSA-NPs were about 14 times higher at 1h after injection than that achieved by CCM. Furthermore, vascular endothelial cell binding of CCM increased 5.5-fold, and transport of CCM across a vascular endothelial cell monolayer by Transwell testing was 7.7-fold greater for CCM-HSA-NPs than CCM. Finally, in vivo antitumor tests revealed that CCM-HSA-NPs (10 or 20mg/kg) had a greater therapeutic effect (50% or 66% tumor growth inhibition vs. PBS-treated controls) than CCM (18% inhibition vs. controls) in tumor xenograft HCT116 models without inducing toxicity. We attribute this potent antitumor activity of CCM-HSA-NPs to enhanced water solubility, increased accumulation in tumors, and an ability to traverse vascular endothelial cell. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Repair after myocardial infarction, between fantasy and reality: the role of chemokines.

              Despite considerable progress over the last decades, acute myocardial infarction continues to remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present therapies include only cause-dependent interventions, which are not able to reduce myocardial necrosis and optimize cardiac repair following infarction. This review highlights the cellular and molecular processes after myocardial injury and focuses on chemokines, the main modulators of the inflammatory and reparatory events, as the most valuable drug targets. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                11 November 2015
                : 9
                : 6043-6054
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences and Shanxi Dayi Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, GA, USA
                [4 ]Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhi-Qing Zhao, Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, 4700 Water Avenue, Savannah, GA 31404, USA, Email zhao_z@ 123456mercer.edu
                Article
                dddt-9-6043
                10.2147/DDDT.S95333
                4651552
                © 2015 Pang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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