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      The impact of a new genus on the molecular phylogeny of Hemisphaeriini (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae)

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          A new genus, Retaldar gen. nov. of the family Issidae ( Hemisphaeriinae , Hemisphaeriini ) is described from Guangxi Province of China. A revised molecular analysis for the Hemisphaeriini based on partial sequences of 18S, 28S, COXI and Cytb, provides evidence for a new lineage within the subtribe Mongolianina . With two subgroups of genera now identified, the monophyly of Mongolianina is discussed from both a morphological and a molecular basis.

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          From micropterism to hyperpterism: recognition strategy and standardized homology-driven terminology of the forewing venation patterns in planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha)

          Following recent advances in the morphological interpretations of the tegmen basal cell margins in the Paraneoptera, a standardized and homology-driven groundplan terminology for tegmina types, structures and vein patterns in Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha, including fossils, is proposed. Each term is listed with a morphological definition, compared and linked to the main systems of planthopper forewing description that have been reviewed. The importance of a standardized and homology-driven terminology is stressed to enhance the quality of data in taxonomic descriptions and to strengthen phylogenetic morphological analysis results. When the interpretation of the origin of vein branches is render difficult, a three-step strategy for pattern recognition of the vein is proposed based on two principles: (1) vein forks are more informative than topology of the vein branches: a search for homologous areas, the nodal cells in particular, must first guide the recognition rather the number of branches of a vein, and (2) minimum of ad hoc evolutionary events should be invoked in the understanding of a modified vein pattern. Examples of some conflicting interpretations of venation patterns in planthoppers are discussed within different families for both extant and extinct taxa. For the first time, the concept of brachypterism is defined in a non-relative way independently from other structures, and the new one of hyperpterism is proposed; a reporting system is proposed for each of them.
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            Female genitalia in HemipteraFulgoromorpha, morphological and phylogenetic data.

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              Planthopper family Issidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha): linking molecular phylogeny with classification

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2019
                14 October 2019
                : 880
                : 61-74
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation of the Ministry of Education, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan Province, 637009, China China West Normal University Nanchong China
                [2 ] Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité, ISYEB-UMR 7205 MNHN-CNRS-Sorbonne Université-EPHE, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, CP 50, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, France Sorbonne Université Paris France
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Menglin Wang ( wangmenglin123@ 123456126.com )

                Academic editor: Mike Wilson

                Article
                36828
                10.3897/zookeys.880.36828
                6803356
                Songping Zhao, Thierry Bourgoin, Menglin Wang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Hemiptera
                Invertebrata
                Molecular Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Asia
                China

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