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      Minor Components of Micropapillary and Solid Subtypes in Lung Adenocarcinoma are Predictors of Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary and solid predominant subtypes was reported to be associated with poor prognosis; however, whether minor components (non-predominant) of micropapillary and solid subtypes predict poor prognosis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the predictive and prognostic value of lymph node metastasis of minor micropapillary and solid components.

          Methods

          Specimens of resected tumors of 1244 patients were reclassified to determine the predominant subtype and minor components (>5 %, but not predominant). Of these specimens, 105 contained a micropapillary component and 210 contained a solid component. The correlation between each subtype and lymph node metastasis was analyzed, and survival analyses were used to determine the association between each subtype and patient survival.

          Results

          Adenocarcinomas harboring micropapillary and/or solid components held higher rates of metastatic lymph node stations (25.2 % vs. 15.6 %, p = 0.002; and 24.0 % vs. 14.9 %, p < 0.001, respectively) and lymph nodes (17.3 % vs. 10.1 %, p = 0.004; and 15.5 % vs. 9.7 %, p = 0.001, respectively). Patients with micropapillary and solid components in their tumors showed a shorter median recurrence-free survival (15.8 vs. 62.8 months, p < 0.001; and 20.8 months vs. not reached, p < 0.001) and overall survival (47.0 months vs. not reached, p < 0.001; and 69.0 months vs. not reached, p < 0.001).

          Conclusions

          Minor components of micropapillary and/or solid subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma are correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Thus, it is beneficial to focus not only on predominant subtypes but also minor components to predict prognoses and make therapeutic strategies more comprehensively.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1245/s10434-015-5043-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references19

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          Randomized phase II trial comparing bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel with carboplatin and paclitaxel alone in previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.

          To investigate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. In a phase II trial, 99 patients were randomly assigned to bevacizumab 7.5 (n = 32) or 15 mg/kg (n = 35) plus carboplatin (area under the curve = 6) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks or carboplatin and paclitaxel alone (n = 32). Primary efficacy end points were time to disease progression and best confirmed response rate. On disease progression, patients in the control arm had the option to receive single-agent bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Compared with the control arm, treatment with carboplatin and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) resulted in a higher response rate (31.5% v 18.8%), longer median time to progression (7.4 v 4.2 months) and a modest increase in survival (17.7 v 14.9 months). Of the 19 control patients that crossed over to single-agent bevacizumab, five experienced stable disease, and 1-year survival was 47%. Bleeding was the most prominent adverse event and was manifested in two distinct clinical patterns; minor mucocutaneous hemorrhage and major hemoptysis. Major hemoptysis was associated with squamous cell histology, tumor necrosis and cavitation, and disease location close to major blood vessels. Bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel improved overall response and time to progression in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients with nonsquamous cell histology appear to be a subpopulation with improved outcome and acceptable safety risks.
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            Maintenance pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care for non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study.

            Several studies have shown the efficacy, tolerability, and ease of administration of pemetrexed-an antifolate antineoplastic agent-in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We assessed pemetrexed as maintenance therapy in patients with this disease. This randomised double-blind study was undertaken in 83 centres in 20 countries. 663 patients with stage IIIB or IV disease who had not progressed on four cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2), day 1) plus best supportive care (n=441) or placebo plus best supportive care (n=222) in 21-day cycles until disease progression. Treatment was randomised with the Simon and Pocock minimisation method. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment. All patients received vitamin B(12), folic acid, and dexamethasone. The primary endpoint of progression-free survival and the secondary endpoint of overall survival were analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00102804. All randomly assigned participants were analysed. Pemetrexed significantly improved progression-free survival (4.3 months [95% CI 4.1-4.7] vs 2.6 months [1.7-2.8]; hazard ratio [HR] 0.50, 95% CI 0.42-0.61, p<0.0001) and overall survival (13.4 months [11.9-15.9] vs 10.6 months [8.7-12.0]; HR 0.79, 0.65-0.95, p=0.012) compared with placebo. Treatment discontinuations due to drug-related toxic effects were higher in the pemetrexed group than in the placebo group (21 [5%] vs three [1%]). Drug-related grade three or higher toxic effects were higher with pemetrexed than with placebo (70 [16%] vs nine [4%]; p<0.0001), specifically fatigue (22 [5%] vs one [1%], p=0.001) and neutropenia (13 [3%] vs 0, p=0.006). No pemetrexed-related deaths occurred. Relatively fewer patients in the pemetrexed group than in the placebo group received systemic post-discontinuation therapy (227 [51%] vs 149 [67%]; p=0.0001). Maintenance therapy with pemetrexed is well tolerated and offers improved progression-free and overall survival compared with placebo in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Eli Lilly.
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              The novel histologic International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification system of lung adenocarcinoma is a stage-independent predictor of survival.

              Our aim was to analyze and validate the prognostic impact of the novel International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) proposal for an architectural classification of invasive pulmonary adenocarcinomas (ADCs) across all tumor stages. The architectural pattern of a large cohort of 500 patients with resected ADCs (stages I to IV) was retrospectively analyzed in 5% increments and classified according to their predominant architecture (lepidic, acinar, solid, papillary, or micropapillary), as proposed by the IASLC/ATS/ERS. Subsequently, histomorphologic data were correlated with clinical data, adjuvant therapy, and patient outcome. Overall survival differed significantly between lepidic (78.5 months), acinar (67.3 months), solid (58.1 months), papillary (48.9 months), and micropapillary (44.9 months) predominant ADCs (P = .007). When patterns were lumped into groups, this resulted in even more pronounced differences in survival (pattern group 1, 78.5 months; group 2, 67.3 months; group 3, 57.2 months; P = .001). Comparable differences were observed for overall, disease-specific, and disease-free survival. Pattern and pattern groups were stage- and therapy-independent prognosticators for all three survival parameters. Survival differences according to patterns were influenced by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy; in particular, solid-predominant tumors had an improved prognosis with adjuvant radiotherapy. The predominant pattern was tightly linked to the risk of developing nodal metastases (P < .001). Besides all recent molecular progress, architectural grading of pulmonary ADCs according to the novel IASLC/ATS/ERS scheme is a rapid, straightforward, and efficient discriminator for patient prognosis and may support patient stratification for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. It should be part of an integrated clinical, morphologic, and molecular subtyping to further improve ADC treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +86-21-64175590 , Sun_yihua76@hotmail.com
                +86-21-64175590 , hqchen1@yahoo.com
                Journal
                Ann Surg Oncol
                Ann. Surg. Oncol
                Annals of Surgical Oncology
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                1068-9265
                1534-4681
                2 February 2016
                2 February 2016
                2016
                : 23
                : 2099-2105
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China
                [ ]Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
                [ ]Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China
                [ ]Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
                [ ]Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
                Article
                5043
                10.1245/s10434-015-5043-9
                4858562
                26842488
                b9e1fee7-56d7-4993-8ba5-4ea5e7a878a3
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 27 September 2015
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef 10.13039/501100003399, Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality;
                Award ID: JGGG1302
                Funded by: FundRef 10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81330056
                Award ID: 81372525
                Award ID: 81401886
                Award ID: 81401891
                Award ID: 81422029
                Award ID: 81472173
                Categories
                Thoracic Oncology
                Custom metadata
                © Society of Surgical Oncology 2016

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                Oncology & Radiotherapy

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