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      Measles outbreak investigation in Ginnir district of Bale zone, Oromia region, Southeast Ethiopia, May 2019

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          Measles is a vaccine-preventable viral infection of humans, primarily affecting children <5 years. During early 2019, outbreak of measles occurred in Ginnir district of Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia. We investigated to describe the outbreak and identify risk factors.


          We conducted a descriptive and 1:2 unmatched case-control study in Ginnir district from March 18 to April 29, 2019. Fifty-six cases and 112 controls were recruited. For descriptive study, we identified 1043 cases recorded on the line-list and for case-control study, cases were identified using national standard case-definition. Mothers of case-patients and controls were interviewed using structured questionnaire. We estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) from case-control study. We conducted bivariate and multivariable logistic regression.


          In four-months period, a total of 1,043 suspected measles cases epidemiologically linked to five laboratory confirmed cases reported. Of which, 555 (53.2%) were males and 714 (68.5%) were <5 years. The median age of cases was 36 months (IQR=12-60 months). The overall attack rate (AR) was 63/10,000 population with case fatality ratio of 0.5% (5 deaths/1043). Infant <9 months were the most affected age groups (AR=31/1000). Majority (79%) of measles cases were not vaccinated against measles. Last-year (2017/18) administrative measle vaccine coverage of the district was 76.7%. Being unvaccinated against measles (AOR=5.4, 95%CI=2.2-13.4), travel history (AOR=4.02, 95%CI=1.2-13.6), contact with measles case-patient (AOR=5.6, 95%CI=2.12-14.4) and mothers knowledge of measles transmission (AOR=0.36, 95%CI=0.15-0.87) were associated with measles infection. VE in children aged 9-59 months was 90% (95%CI=69-97%).


          This confirmed measles outbreak was caused by failure to vaccinate, as indicated by the high VE, low administrative coverage, and 79% unvaccinated cases. Strengthening routine and supplementary immunization are required.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Field evaluation of vaccine efficacy.

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            Field effectiveness of live attenuated measles-containing vaccines: a review of published literature.

            Information on measles vaccine effectiveness (VE) is critical to help inform policies for future global measles control goals. We reviewed results of VE studies published during 1960-2010. Seventy papers with 135 VE point estimates were identified. For a single dose of vaccine administered at 9-11 months of age and ≥12 months, the median VE was 77.0% (interquartile range [IQR], 62%-91%) and 92.0% (IQR, 86%-96%), respectively. When analysis was restricted to include only point estimates for which vaccination history was verified and cases were laboratory confirmed, the median VE was 84.0% (IQR, 72.0%-95.0%) and 92.5% (IQR, 84.8%-97.0%) when vaccine was received at 9-11 and ≥12 months, respectively. Published VE vary by World Health Organization region, with generally lower estimates in countries belonging to the African and SouthEast Asian Regions. For 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine, compared with no vaccination, the median VE was 94.1% (IQR, 88.3%-98.3%). The VE of the first dose of measles-containing vaccine administered at 9-11 months was lower than what would be expected from serologic evaluations but was higher than expected when administered at ≥12 months. The median VE increased in a subset of articles in which classification bias was reduced through verified vaccination history and laboratory confirmation. In general, 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine provided excellent protection against measles. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.
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              Level of immunization coverage and associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Lay Armachiho District, North Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study

              Background Immunization against childhood disease is one of the most important public health interventions with cost effective means to preventing childhood morbidity, mortality and disability. However, complete immunization coverage remains low particularly in rural areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the level of immunization coverage and associated factors in Lay Armachiho District, North Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in March, 2014 among 751 pairs of mothers to children aged 12–23 months in Lay Armachiho District. A two stage sampling technique was employed. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to compute association between factors and immunization status of children. Backwards stepwise regression method was used and those variables significant at p value 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Seventy-six percent of the children were fully immunized during the study period. Dropout rate was 6.5% for BCG to measles, 2.7% for Penta1 to Penta3 and 4.5% for Pnemonia1 to Pnemonia3. The likelihood of children to be fully immunized among mothers who identified the number of sessions needed for vaccination were higher than those who did not [AOR = 2.8 (95% C1 = 1.89, 4.2)]. Full immunization status of children was higher among mothers who know the age at which the child become fully immunized than who did not know [AOR = 2.93 (95% CI = 2.02, 4.3)]. Taking tetanus toxoid immunization during pregnancy showed statistically significant association with full immunization of children [AOR 1.6 (95% CI = 1.06, 2.62)]. Urban children were more likely to be fully immunized than rural [AOR = 1.82 (95% CI = 1.15, 2.80)] and being male were more likely to be fully immunized than female [AOR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.26, 2.6)]. Conclusion and recommendation Vaccination coverage was low compared to the Millennium Development Goals target. It is important to increase and maintain the immunization level to the intended target. Efforts should be made to promote women‘s’ awareness on tetanus toxoid immunization, when the child should start vaccination, number of sessions needed to complete immunization, and when a child become complete vaccination to improve immunization coverage through health development army and health professionals working at antenatal care, postnatal care and immunization units.

                Author and article information

                Pan Afr Med J
                Pan Afr Med J
                The Pan African Medical Journal
                The African Field Epidemiology Network
                14 May 2020
                : 36
                [1 ]Field Epidemiology Training Program, Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Field Epidemiology, Public Health Emergency Management, Bale Zonal Health Office, Bale Zone, Robe, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                [& ]Corresponding author: Falaho Sani Kalil, Field Epidemiology Training Program, Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

                Domain: Epidemiology, Infectious diseases epidemiology, Immunization

                © Falaho Sani Kalil et al.

                The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



                measles, outbreak, case control, southeast ethiopia, bale zone


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