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      Effects of ginger for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis.

      Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM
      Female, Ginger, Humans, Morning Sickness, drug therapy, etiology, Phytotherapy, Plant Preparations, therapeutic use, Pregnancy, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Risk Factors

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          Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVEP) is commonly encountered in family medicine. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a popular nonpharmacological treatment but consensus of its use is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials using ginger for NVEP as published in PubMed and EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and all EBM reviews. Studies satisfying 3 criteria were selected: (1) randomized placebo-controlled design; (2) use of ginger or Z. officinale; and (3) extractable data on improvement in NVEP. Data were synthesized into pooled odd ratios based on the random effects model, and results were tabulated with the aid of Forest plots. We identified 135 potentially relevant records; only 6 studies met the final criteria. Of the total 508 subjects, 256 and 252 subjects were randomly assigned to receive ginger and placebo, respectively. The use of ginger (∼1 g daily) for at least 4 days is associated with a 5-fold likelihood of improvement in NVEP. Heterogeneity among the clinical studies were acknowledged in the final interpretation of results. Despite the widespread use of ginger in the diet, its clinic value and safety profile in treating NVEP is still unknown. Our meta-analysis suggests that ginger is an effective nonpharmacological treatment for NVEP.

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          Female,Ginger,Humans,Morning Sickness,drug therapy,etiology,Phytotherapy,Plant Preparations,therapeutic use,Pregnancy,Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic,Risk Factors


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