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      A quest to increase safety of anesthetics by advancements in anesthesia monitoring: scientometric analysis

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to assess progress in the field of anesthesia monitoring over the past 40 years using scientometric analysis. The following scientometric indexes were used: popularity indexes (general and specific), representing the proportion of articles on either a topic relative to all articles in the field of anesthetics (general popularity index, GPI) or the subfield of anesthesia monitoring (specific popularity index, SPI); index of change (IC), representing the degree of growth in publications on a topic from one period to the next; and index of expectations (IE), representing the ratio of the number of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed. Publications on 33 anesthesia-monitoring topics were assessed. Our analysis showed that over the past 40 years, the rate of rise in the number of articles on anesthesia monitoring was exponential, with an increase of more than eleven-fold, from 296 articles over the 5-year period 1974–1978 to 3,394 articles for 2009–2013. This rise profoundly exceeded the rate of rise of the number of articles on general anesthetics. The difference was especially evident with the comparison of the related GPIs: stable growth of the GPI for anesthesia monitoring vs constant decline in the GPI for general anesthetics. By the 2009–2013 period, among specific monitoring topics introduced after 1980, the SPI index had a meaningful magnitude (≥1.5) in 9 of 24 topics: Bispectral Index (7.8), Transesophageal Echocardiography (4.2), Electromyography (2.8), Pulse Oximetry (2.4), Entropy (2.3), Train-of-four (2.3), Capnography (1.9), Pulse Contour (1.9), and Electrical Nerve Stimulation for neuromuscular monitoring (1.6). Only one of these topics (Pulse Contour) demonstrated (in 2009–2013) high values for both IC and IE indexes (76 and 16.9, respectively), indicating significant recent progress. We suggest that rapid growth in the field of anesthetic monitoring was one of the most important developments to compensate for the intrinsically low margins of safety of anesthetic agents.

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          Most cited references 39

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          An introduction to bispectral analysis for the electroencephalogram.

           C. Sigl,  N Chamoun (1994)
          The goal of much effort in recent years has been to provide a simplified interpretation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) for a variety of applications, including the diagnosis of neurological disorders and the intraoperative monitoring of anesthetic efficacy and cerebral ischemia. Although processed EEG variables have enjoyed limited success for specific applications, few acceptable standards have emerged. In part, this may be attributed to the fact that commonly used signal processing tools do not quantify all of the information available in the EEG. Power spectral analysis, for example, quantifies only power distribution as a function of frequency, ignoring phase information. It also makes the assumption that the signal arises from a linear process, thereby ignoring potential interaction between components of the signal that are manifested as phase coupling, a common phenomenon in signals generated from nonlinear sources such as the central nervous system (CNS). This tutorial describes bispectral analysis, a method of signal processing that quantifies the degree of phase coupling between the components of a signal such as the EEG. The basic theory underlying bispectral analysis is explained in detail, and information obtained from bispectral analysis is compared with that available from the power spectrum. The concept of a bispectral index is introduced. Finally, several model signals, as well as a representative clinical case, are analyzed using bispectral analysis, and the results are interpreted.
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            Bispectral analysis measures sedation and memory effects of propofol, midazolam, isoflurane, and alfentanil in healthy volunteers.

             C Rosow,  L Kearse,  P Glass (1997)
            The bispectral index (BIS), a value derived from the electroencephalograph (EEG), has been proposed as a measure of anesthetic effect. To establish its utility for this purpose, it is important to determine the relation among BIS, measured drug concentration, and increasing levels of sedation. This study was designed to evaluate this relation for four commonly used anesthetic drugs: propofol, midazolam, isoflurane, and alfentanil. Seventy-two consenting volunteers were studied at four institutions. Volunteers were given either isoflurane, propofol, midazolam, or alfentanil. Each volunteer was administered a dose-ranging sequence of one of the study drugs to achieve predetermined target concentrations. A frontal montage was used for continuous recording of the EEG. At each pseudo-steady-state drug concentration, a BIS score was recorded, the participant was shown either a picture or given a word to recall, an arterial blood sample was obtained for subsequent analysis of drug concentration, and the participant was evaluated for level of sedation as determined by the responsiveness portion of the observer's assessment of the alertness/ sedation scale (OAAS). An OAAS score of 2 or less was considered unconscious. The BIS (version 2.5) score was recorded in real-time and the BIS (version 3.0) was subsequently derived off-line from the recorded raw EEG data. The relation among BIS, measured drug concentration, responsiveness score, and presence or absence of recall was determined by linear and logistic regression for both the individual drugs and, when appropriate, for the pooled results. The prediction probability was also calculated. The BIS score (r = 0.883) correlated significantly better than the measured propofol concentration (r = -0.778; P < 0.05) with the responsiveness score. The BIS provided as effective correlation with responsiveness score of the OAAS as did the measured concentration for midazolam and isoflurane. None of the volunteers given alfentanil lost consciousness and thus were excluded from the pooled analysis. The pooled BIS values at which 50% and 95% of participants were unconscious were 67 and 50, respectively. The prediction probability values for BIS ranged from 0.885-0.976, indicating a very high predictive performance for correctly indicating probability of loss of consciousness. The BIS both correlated well with the level of responsiveness and provided an excellent prediction of the loss of consciousness. These results imply that BIS may be a valuable monitor of the level of sedation and loss of consciousness for propofol, midazolam, and isoflurane.
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              Preventable anesthesia mishaps: a study of human factors.

              A modified critical-incident analysis technique was used in a retrospective examination of the characteristics of human error and equipment failure in anesthetic practice. The objective was to uncover patterns of frequently occurring incidents that are in need of careful prospective investigation. Forty-seven interviews were conducted with staff and resident anesthesiologists at one urban teaching institution, and descriptions of 359 preventable incidents were obtained. Twenty-three categories of details from these descriptions were subjected to computer-aided analysis for trends and patterns. Most of the preventable incidents involved human error (82 per cent), with breathing-circuit disconnections, inadvertent changes in gas flow, and drug-syringe errors being frequent problems. Overt equipment failures constituted only 14 per cent of the total number of preventable incidents, but equipment design was indictable in many categories of human error, as were inadequate experience and insufficient familiarity with equipment or with the specific surgical procedure. Other factors frequently associated with incidents were inadequate communication among personnel, haste or lack of precaution, and distraction. Results from multi-hospital studies based on the methodology developed could be used for more objective determination of priorities and planning of specific investments for decreasing the risk associated with anesthesia.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                11 May 2015
                : 9
                : 2599-2608
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Igor Kissin, Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA, Tel +1 617 732 5052, Fax +1 617 734 0682, Email kissin@ 123456zeus.bwh.harvard.edu
                Article
                dddt-9-2599
                10.2147/DDDT.S81013
                4433046
                26005336
                © 2015 Vlassakov and Kissin. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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