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      Wheat germ supplementation alleviates insulin resistance and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in an animal model of diet-induced obesity.

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          Abstract

          Obesity is strongly associated with insulin resistance (IR), along with mitochondrial dysfunction to metabolically active tissues and increased production of reactive O2 species (ROS). Foods rich in antioxidants such as wheat germ (WG), protect tissues from damage due to ROS and modulate some negative effects of obesity. This study examined the effects of WG supplementation on markers of IR, mitochondrial substrate metabolism and innate antioxidant markers in two metabolically active tissues (i.e. liver and heart) of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat-high-sucrose (HFS) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice, 6-week-old, were randomised into four dietary treatment groups (n 12 mice/group): control (C, 10 % fat kcal), C+10 % WG, HFS (60 % fat kcal) or HFS+10 % WG (HFS+WG). After 12 weeks of treatment, HFS+WG mice had significantly less visceral fat (-16 %, P=0·006) compared with the HFS group. WG significantly reduced serum insulin (P=0·009), the insulinotropic hormone, gastric inhibitory peptide (P=0·0003), and the surrogate measure of IR, homoeostatic model assessment of IR (P=0·006). HFS diet significantly elevated (45 %, P=0·02) cardiac complex 2 mitochondrial VO2, suggesting increased metabolic stress, whereas WG stabilised this effect to the level of control. Consequently, genes which mediate antioxidant defense and mitochondrial biogenesis (superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) and PPARγ coactivator 1-α (Pgc1a), respectively) were significantly reduced (P<0·05) in the heart of the HFS group, whereas WG supplementation tended to up-regulate both genes. WG significantly increased hepatic gene expression of Sod2 (P=0·048) but not Pgc1a. Together, these results showed that WG supplementation in HFS diet, reduced IR and improved cardiac mitochondrial metabolic functions.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Br J Nutr
          The British journal of nutrition
          Cambridge University Press (CUP)
          1475-2662
          0007-1145
          Aug 2017
          : 118
          : 4
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Nutritional Sciences Department,Oklahoma State University,Stillwater,OK 74078,USA.
          Article
          S0007114517002082
          10.1017/S0007114517002082
          28875871
          b9ff0f6a-979e-4a9e-9343-421292f747fc
          History

          C control, GIP gastric inhibitory peptide, HFS high fat–high sucrose, HFS+WG HFS+10 % WG, IR insulin resistance, OCR VO2 rates, Pgc1α PPARγ coactivator 1-α, ROS reactive O2 species, Sod2 superoxide dismutase 2, WG wheat germ,Heart,High-fat diet,Insulin resistance,Mitochondria,Obesity,Wheat,Wheat germ

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