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      Lysosomal Rerouting of Hsp70 Trafficking as a Potential Immune Activating Tool for Targeting Melanoma

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          Abstract

          Tumor specific cell surface localization and release of the stress inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) stimulate the immune system against cancer cells. A key immune stimulatory function of tumor-derived Hsp70 has been exemplified with the murine melanoma cell model, B16 overexpressing exogenous Hsp70. Despite the therapeutic potential mechanism of Hsp70 transport to the surface and release remained poorly understood. We investigated principles of Hsp70 trafficking in B16 melanoma cells with low and high level of Hsp70. In cells with low level of Hsp70 apparent trafficking of Hsp70 was mediated by endosomes. Excess Hsp70 triggered a series of changes such as a switch of Hsp70 trafficking from endosomes to lysosomes and a concomitant accumulation of Hsp70 in lysosomes. Moreover, lysosomal rerouting resulted in an elevated concentration of surface Hsp70 and enabled active release of Hsp70. In fact, hyperthermia, a clinically applicable approach triggered immediate active lysosomal release of soluble Hsp70 from cells with excess Hsp70. Furthermore, excess Hsp70 enabled targeting of internalized surface Hsp70 to lysosomes, allowing in turn heat-induced secretion of surface Hsp70. Altogether, we show that excess Hsp70 expressed in B16 melanoma cells diverts Hsp70 trafficking from endosomes to lysosomes, thereby supporting its surface localization and lysosomal release. Controlled excess-induced lysosomal rerouting and secretion of Hsp70 is proposed as a promising tool to stimulate anti-tumor immunity targeting melanoma.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Lysosomes: fusion and function.

          Lysosomes are dynamic organelles that receive and degrade macromolecules from the secretory, endocytic, autophagic and phagocytic membrane-trafficking pathways. Live-cell imaging has shown that fusion with lysosomes occurs by both transient and full fusion events, and yeast genetics and mammalian cell-free systems have identified much of the protein machinery that coordinates these fusion events. Many pathogens that hijack the endocytic pathways to enter cells have evolved mechanisms to avoid being degraded by the lysosome. However, the function of lysosomes is not restricted to protein degradation: they also fuse with the plasma membrane during cell injury, as well as having more specialized secretory functions in some cell types.
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            HSP70 stimulates cytokine production through a CD14-dependant pathway, demonstrating its dual role as a chaperone and cytokine.

            Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown function for the 70-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70) as a cytokine. HSP70 bound with high affinity to the plasma membrane, elicited a rapid intracellular calcium flux, activated nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and upregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 in human monocytes. Furthermore, two different signal transduction pathways were activated by exogenous HSP70: one dependent on CD14 and intracellular calcium, which resulted in increased IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha; and the other independent of CD14 but dependent on intracellular calcium, which resulted in an increase in TNF-alpha but not IL-1beta or IL-6. These findings indicate that CD14 is a co-receptor for HSP70-mediated signaling in human monocytes and are indicative of an previously unrecognized function for HSP70 as an extracellular protein with regulatory effects on human monocytes, having a dual role as chaperone and cytokine.
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              Heat shock protein 70 surface-positive tumor exosomes stimulate migratory and cytolytic activity of natural killer cells.

              Detergent-soluble membrane vesicles are actively released by human pancreas (Colo-/Colo+) and colon (CX-/CX+) carcinoma sublines, differing in their capacity to present heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)/Bag-4 on their plasma membranes. Floating properties, acetylcholine esterase activity, and protein composition characterized them as exosomes. An enrichment of Rab-4 documented their intracellular transport route from early endosomes to the plasma membrane. After solubilization, comparable amounts of cytosolic proteins, including tubulin, Hsp70, Hsc70, and Bag-4, but not ER-residing Grp94 and calnexin, were detectable in tumor-derived exosomes. However, with respect to the exosomal surface, only Colo+/CX+ but not Colo-/CX- derived exosomes were Hsp70 membrane positive. Therefore, concomitant with an up-regulated cell surface density of activation markers, migration and Hsp70 reactivity of natural killer (NK) cells was stimulated selectively by Hsp70/Bag-4 surface-positive exosomes, but not by their negative counterparts and tumor cell lysates. Moreover, the exosome-mediated lytic activity of NK cells was blockable by Hsp70-specific antibody. As already shown for TKD stimulation, NK cells preincubated with Hsp70 surface-positive exosomes initiated apoptosis in tumors through granzyme B release. In summary, our data provide an explanation how Hsp70 reactivity in NK cells is induced by tumor-derived exosomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Curr Pharm Des
                Curr. Pharm. Des
                CPD
                Current Pharmaceutical Design
                Bentham Science Publishers
                1381-6128
                1873-4286
                January 2013
                January 2013
                : 19
                : 3
                : 430-440
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Advanced Bioanalysis GmbH, Gruberstr. 40-42, A-4020 Linz, Austria
                [2 ]Eukaryotic Molecular Biology Unit,
                [3 ]Molecular Stress Biology Group, Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Center, Temesvari krt. 62, H-6701, Szeged, Hungary
                [4 ]Institute of Medical Biology, University of Szeged, Somogyi B. u. 4., Szeged, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to this author at the Gruberstr. 40-42, 4020 Linz, Austria; Tel: +43 (0) 732 - 2468 - 7503; Fax: +43 (0) 732 - 2468 - 7530; E-mail: alois.sonnleitner@ 123456cbl.at
                Article
                CPD-19-430
                10.2174/138161213804143644
                3531874
                22920897
                © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/), which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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