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      Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Treatment Review


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          Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.

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          Pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

          Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and lowered pain threshold. Other prominent symptoms include disordered sleep and fatigue. FMS affects an estimated 2% of the population, predominantly women. This trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin, a novel alpha(2)-delta ligand, for treatment of symptoms associated with FMS. This multicenter, double-blind, 8-week, randomized clinical trial compared the effects of placebo with those of 150, 300, and 450 mg/day pregabalin on pain, sleep, fatigue, and health-related quality of life in 529 patients with FMS. The primary outcome variable was the comparison of end point mean pain scores, derived from daily diary ratings of pain intensity, between each of the pregabalin treatment groups and the placebo group. Pregabalin at 450 mg/day significantly reduced the average severity of pain in the primary analysis compared with placebo (-0.93 on a 0-10 scale) (P /=50% improvement in pain at the end point (29%, versus 13% in the placebo group; P = 0.003). Pregabalin at 300 and 450 mg/day was associated with significant improvements in sleep quality, fatigue, and global measures of change. Pregabalin at 450 mg/day improved several domains of health-related quality of life. Dizziness and somnolence were the most frequent adverse events. Rates of discontinuation due to adverse events were similar across all 4 treatment groups. Pregabalin at 450 mg/day was efficacious for the treatment of FMS, reducing symptoms of pain, disturbed sleep, and fatigue compared with placebo. Pregabalin was well tolerated and improved global measures and health-related quality of life.
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            A systematic review of antidepressants in neuropathic pain.

            The objective of this study was to review the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in neuropathic pain. In a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, the main outcomes were global judgements, pain relief or fall in pain intensity which approximated to more than 50% pain relief, and information about minor and major adverse effects. Dichotomous data for effectiveness and adverse effects were analysed using odds ratio and number needed-to-treat (NNT) methods. Twenty-one placebo-controlled treatments in 17 randomised controlled trials were included, involving 10 antidepressants. In six of 13 diabetic neuropathy studies the odds ratios showed significant benefit compared with placebo. The combined odds ratio was 3.6 (95% CI 2.5-5.2), with a NNT for benefit of 3 (2.4-4). In two of three postherpetic neuralgia studies the odds ratios showed significant benefit, and the combined odds ratio was 6.8 (3.5-14.3), with a NNT of 2.3 (1.7-3.3). In two atypical facial pain studies the combined odds ratio for benefit was 4.1 (2.3-7.5), with a NNT of 2.8 (2-4.7). Only one of three central pain studies had analysable dichotomous data. The NNT point estimate was 1.7. Comparisons of tricyclic antidepressants did not show any significant difference between them; they were significantly more effective than benzodiazepines in the three comparisons available. Paroxetine and mianserin were less effective than imipramine. For 11 of the 21 placebo-controlled treatments there was dichotomous information on minor adverse effects; combining across pain syndromes the NNT for minor (noted in published report) adverse effects was 3.7 (2.9-5.2). Information on major (drug-related study withdrawal) adverse effects was available from 19 reports; combining across pain syndromes the NNT for major adverse effects was 22 (13.5-58). Antidepressants are effective in relieving neuropathic pain. Compared with placebo, of 100 patients with neuropathic pain who are given antidepressants, 30 will obtain more than 50% pain relief, 30 will have minor adverse reactions and four will have to stop treatment because of major adverse effects. With very similar results for anticonvulsants it is still unclear which drug class should be first choice. Treatment would be improved if we could harness the dramatic improvement seen on placebo in some of the trials.
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                Author and article information

                Pain Ther
                Pain Ther
                Pain and Therapy
                Springer Healthcare (Cheshire )
                12 February 2013
                12 February 2013
                June 2013
                : 2
                : 1
                : 21-36
                [ ]Pain Medicine and Non-Operative Spine Services, The George Washington University Medical Center, 2131K Street, NW Washington, DC 20037 USA
                [ ]Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, NW Washington, DC 20007 USA
                © The Author(s) 2013
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                © Springer Healthcare 2013


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