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      A Case of Membranous Glomerulonephropathy Associated with Takayasu's Arteritis

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          Abstract

          Glomerulonephropathy is a rare complication of Takayasu's arteritis (TA). To date, most glomerulonephropathies associated with TA show the histological feature of mesangial proliferation. Membranous glomerulonephropathy (MG) is a form of glomerulonephropathy in which the mesangial proliferation is not conspicuous and its association with TA is extremely rare. A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to progressive edema in the lower limbs and nephrotic range proteinuria. Five years previously, he underwent percutaneous angioplasty for left subclavian artery stenosis. Kidney biopsy revealed stage II MG. General examination including enhanced CT scan confirmed the presence of TA. He started oral prednisolone therapy at a dose of 40 mg daily. The C-reactive protein level normalized 7 days after the prednisolone therapy. Three months later, proteinuria had remitted. Though the true relationship between MG and TA was not revealed in present case, considering the fact that complete remission of nephrotic syndrome occurred following the improvement of C-reactive protein level in response to steroid therapy, TA might be the secondary cause of MG. To our best knowledge, only two case reports described the association of MG and TA previously. Those two patients, however, also demonstrated the feature of systemic lupus erythematosus in addition to TA. This is the first case report that describes a patient who presented as MG associated with TA, but not complicated by systemic lupus erythematosus.

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          Most cited references 15

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          The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Takayasu arteritis.

          Criteria for the classification of Takayasu arteritis were developed by comparing 63 patients who had this disease with 744 control patients with other forms of vasculitis. Six criteria were selected for the traditional format classification: onset at age less than or equal to 40 years, claudication of an extremity, decreased brachial artery pulse, greater than 10 mm Hg difference in systolic blood pressure between arms, a bruit over the subclavian arteries or the aorta, and arteriographic evidence of narrowing or occlusion of the entire aorta, its primary branches, or large arteries in the proximal upper or lower extremities. The presence of 3 or more of these 6 criteria demonstrated a sensitivity of 90.5% and a specificity of 97.8%. A classification tree also was constructed with 5 of these 6 criteria, omitting claudication of an extremity. The classification tree demonstrated a sensitivity of 92.1% and a specificity of 97.0%.
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            The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of takayasu arteritis

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              IgG subclass deposits in glomeruli of lupus and nonlupus membranous nephropathies.

              Membranous nephropathy (MN) accounts for approximately 10% of all renal lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These membranous lesions often have a clinical presentation similar to that of idiopathic MN and may present before SLE is apparent clinically. However, unlike proliferative lesions of lupus nephritis (LN), membranous LN often does not show a "full-house" pattern of glomerular immunoglobulin and complement (C) deposits by immunofluorescence (IF); only nine of 14 such lesions that we examined stained for all of the following: IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C1q. Iskandar et al reported in 1992 that most cases of diffuse proliferative LN showed IgG3 as the major IgG subclass present in glomerular deposits; by contrast, IgG4 predominated in six of seven cases of MN of unspecified etiology. If IgG subclass deposition is similar in membranous and proliferative lesions of LN, then IF staining for IgG3 and IgG4 may be helpful in distinguishing lupus from nonlupus lesions in patients with MN who are lacking a firm diagnosis of SLE. We therefore stained cryostat sections of renal biopsies from 14 patients with SLE and MN (without a proliferative component; World Health Organization [WHO] classes Va and Vb) and 28 non-SLE patients with MN for IgG subclasses by direct IF; the observer was blind to the diagnosis for each case until all were read. The intensity of glomerular staining was graded on a 0 to 4+ scale with increments of 0.5+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRU
                CND
                10.1159/issn.2296-9705
                Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
                S. Karger AG
                2296-9705
                2014
                January – April 2014
                01 April 2014
                : 4
                : 1
                : 60-69
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology and bPathology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, and cDepartment of Clinical Nephrology and Rheumatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan
                Author notes
                *Tetsuro Takeda, Department of Nephrology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, 1-50, 2-chome, Minami-Koshigaya, 3438555 Koshigaya, Saitama (Japan), E-Mail ttak@dokkyomed.ac.jp
                Article
                360850 PMC4025153 Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2014;4:60-69
                10.1159/000360850
                PMC4025153
                24847348
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Published: April 2014

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