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      Prednisolone and Azathioprine in IgA Nephropathy

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          Background: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common primary glomerular diseases. Although its clinical course is usually benign, some patients develop end-stage renal failure (ESRF). The role of immunosuppressive drugs in the treatment of IgAN remains controversial. The effect of treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine and the clinical and histological parameters related to a poor outcome are examined retrospectively in this analysis. Methods: Seventy-four patients with IgAN and a follow-up period of 10 years were included in this study. Forty-one were treated with prednisolone (initially 60 mg/day) and azathioprine (initially 2 mg/kg BW/day) in gradually reduced doses for 24 ± 9 months, whereas 33 patients received no immunosuppressive drugs. The clinical course was estimated using the end-points of doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or ESRF. The contribution of clinical and histological parameters in the clinical outcome was estimated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The overall clinical courses of both groups of patients showed a rather similar pattern. Doubling of serum baseline creatinine was observed in 9 of 41 treated (22%) and in 10 of 33 untreated (30%), whereas ESRF developed in 6 treated (15%) and 6 untreated patients (18%) (p = NS). However, treated patients with heavy proteinuria (>3 g/24 h) had a significantly better outcome compared to untreated (doubling of serum creatinine in 29 vs. 78% and ESRF in 17 vs. 55%, p < 0.05). Proteinuria (p < 0.01), mean blood pressure (p < 0.02), baseline serum creatinine (p = 0.02) and severity of interstitial myofibroblast expression (p = 0.02) were identified as independent risk factors related to a poor outcome by multivariate analysis. Side effects of treatment were not uncommomn and observed in 10 (24%) patients. Conclusion: Treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine is beneficial in ameliorating the clinical course of a subset of IgAN patients with heavy proteinuria or impaired renal function. Patients with advanced renal failure and severe chronic histological lesions should not be treated by this regimen as no benefit is expected and there is a risk of side effects.

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          A controlled trial of fish oil in IgA nephropathy. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group.

          The n-3 fatty acids in fish oil affect eicosanoid and cytokine production and therefore have the potential to alter renal hemodynamics and inflammation. The effects of fish oil could prevent immunologic renal injury in patients with IgA nephropathy. In a multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial we tested the efficacy of fish oil in patients with IgA nephropathy who had persistent proteinuria. The daily dose of fish oil was 12 g; the placebo was a similar dose of olive oil. Serum creatinine concentrations, elevated in 68 percent of the patients at base line, and creatinine clearance were measured for two years. The primary end point was an increase of 50 percent or more in the serum creatinine concentration at the end of the study. Fifty-five patients were assigned to receive fish oil, and 51 to receive placebo. According to Kaplan-Meier estimation, 3 patients (6 percent) in the fish-oil group and 14 (33 percent) in the placebo group had increases of 50 percent or more in their serum creatinine concentrations during treatment (P = 0.002). The annual median changes in the serum creatinine concentrations were 0.03 mg per deciliter (2.7 mumol per liter) in the fish-oil group and 0.14 mg per deciliter (12.4 mumol per liter) in the placebo group. Proteinuria was slightly reduced and hypertension was controlled to a comparable degree in both groups. The cumulative percentage of patients who died or had end-stage renal disease was 40 percent in the placebo group after four years and 10 percent in the fish-oil group (P = 0.006). No patient discontinued fish-oil treatment because of adverse effects. In patients with IgA nephropathy, treatment with fish oil for two years retards the rate at which renal function is lost.
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            Corticosteroids in IgA nephropathy: a randomised controlled trial


              Author and article information

              Nephron Clin Pract
              Nephron Clinical Practice
              S. Karger AG
              February 2003
              17 November 2004
              : 93
              : 2
              : c58-c68
              Departments of aNephrology and bCardiology, University Hospital of Patras, Patras, Greece; cSheffield Kidney Institute and dDepartment of Histopathology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, NorthernGeneralCampus, Sheffield,UK
              68522 Nephron Clin Pract 2003;93:c58–c68
              © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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              Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 30, Pages: 1
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