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      Heat-Shock Proteins and Acute Ischaemic Kidney Injury

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          Abstract

          The incidence of acute kidney injury due to ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is rising but effective treatments and preventative approaches are currently lacking. IRI is also an inevitable consequence of kidney transplantation and significantly contributes to delayed graft function. Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperones that help maintain and restore normal cellular function in the kidney following IRI. Hsp70 is one of the most frequently studied Hsps because of potential cytoprotective properties and attractiveness as a therapeutic target. However, the protective properties of Hsp70 in renal IRI are not fully understood and putative modes of protection include correction of protein conformation, cytoskeletal stabilisation, anti-inflammatory effects, requirement in autophagy, anti-apoptotic properties, influence over macrophage phenotype and stimulation of regulatory T cells. Significant clinical interest has been generated about the possibility of applying pharmacological agents to induce Hsp70 and prevent renal IRI, but prior to this, an increased mechanistic understanding of the protective nature of Hsp70 is needed. In particular, further investigation of Hsp expression on inflammatory cell behaviour is required as this could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for enhancing recovery following renal IRI and broaden the range of these therapies to a wider group of patients.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The heat shock response: life on the verge of death.

          Organisms must survive a variety of stressful conditions, including sudden temperature increases that damage important cellular structures and interfere with essential functions. In response to heat stress, cells activate an ancient signaling pathway leading to the transient expression of heat shock or heat stress proteins (Hsps). Hsps exhibit sophisticated protection mechanisms, and the most conserved Hsps are molecular chaperones that prevent the formation of nonspecific protein aggregates and assist proteins in the acquisition of their native structures. In this Review, we summarize the concepts of the protective Hsp network. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Pathophysiology of ischemic acute kidney injury.

            Acute kidney injury (AKI) as a consequence of ischemia is a common clinical event leading to unacceptably high morbidity and mortality, development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and transition from pre-existing CKD to end-stage renal disease. Data indicate a close interaction between the many cell types involved in the pathophysiology of ischemic AKI, which has critical implications for the treatment of this condition. Inflammation seems to be the common factor that links the various cell types involved in this process. In this Review, we describe the interactions between these cells and their response to injury following ischemia. We relate these events to patients who are at high risk of AKI, and highlight the characteristics that might predispose these patients to injury. We also discuss how therapy targeting specific cell types can minimize the initial and subsequent injury following ischemia, thereby limiting the extent of acute changes and, hopefully, long-term structural and functional alterations to the kidney.
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              Association between delayed graft function and allograft and patient survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Delayed graft function (DGF) is a common complication of renal transplantation. The short-term consequences of DGF are well known, but the long-term relationship between DGF and patient and graft survival is controversial in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to precisely estimate these relationships. We performed a literature search for original studies published through March 2007 pertaining to long-term (>6 months) outcomes of DGF. The primary outcome was graft survival. Secondary outcomes were patient survival, acute rejection and kidney function. When compared to patients without DGF, patients with DGF had a 41% increased risk of graft loss (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.27-1.56) at 3.2 years of follow-up. There was no significant relationship between DGF and patient survival at 5 years (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.94-1.39). The mean creatinine in the non-DGF group was 1.6 mg/dl. Patients with DGF had a higher mean serum creatinine (0.66 mg/dl, 95% CI 0.57-0.74) compared to patients without DGF at 3.5 years of follow-up. DGF was associated with a 38% relative increase in the risk of acute rejection (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.29-1.47). The results of this meta-analysis emphasize and quantify the long-term detrimental association between DGF and important graft outcomes like graft survival, acute rejection and renal function. Efforts to prevent and treat DGF should be aggressively investigated in order to improve graft survival given the deficit in the number of kidney donors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2014
                July 2014
                06 June 2014
                : 126
                : 4
                : 167-174
                Affiliations
                aMRC Centre for Inflammation Research and bMRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Injury and Repair Group, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
                Author notes
                *Stephen O'Neill, MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, Tissue Injury and Repair Group, University of Edinburgh, Chancellor's Building, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA (UK), E-Mail stephenoneill@doctors.org.uk
                Article
                363323 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2014;126:167-174
                10.1159/000363323
                24923736
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 8
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