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      The scaffolding protein Cnk binds to the receptor tyrosine kinase Alk to promote visceral founder cell specification inDrosophila

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          Most cited references 60

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          Genome Engineering of Drosophila with the CRISPR RNA-Guided Cas9 Nuclease

          We have adapted a bacterial CRISPR RNA/Cas9 system to precisely engineer the Drosophila genome and report that Cas9-mediated genomic modifications are efficiently transmitted through the germline. This RNA-guided Cas9 system can be rapidly programmed to generate targeted alleles for probing gene function in Drosophila.
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            Mitogen-activated protein kinase: conservation of a three-kinase module from yeast to human.

            Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are serine-threonine protein kinases that are activated by diverse stimuli ranging from cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, hormones, cellular stress, and cell adherence. Mitogen-activated protein kinases are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. The basic assembly of MAPK pathways is a three-component module conserved from yeast to humans. The MAPK module includes three kinases that establish a sequential activation pathway comprising a MAPK kinase kinase (MKKK), MAPK kinase (MKK), and MAPK. Currently, there have been 14 MKKK, 7 MKK, and 12 MAPK identified in mammalian cells. The mammalian MAPK can be subdivided into five families: MAPKerk1/2, MAPKp38, MAPKjnk, MAPKerk3/4, and MAPKerk5. Each MAPK family has distinct biological functions. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are five MAPK pathways involved in mating, cell wall remodelling, nutrient deprivation, and responses to stress stimuli such as osmolarity changes. Component members of the yeast pathways have conserved counterparts in mammalian cells. The number of different MKKK in MAPK modules allows for the diversity of inputs capable of activating MAPK pathways. In this review, we define all known MAPK module kinases from yeast to humans, what is known about their regulation, defined MAPK substrates, and the function of MAPK in cell physiology.
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              Meaningful relationships: the regulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway by protein interactions.

               W Kolch (2000)
              The Ras/Raf/MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) pathway is at the heart of signalling networks that govern proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Although the basic regulatory steps have been elucidated, many features of this pathway are only beginning to emerge. This review focuses on the role of protein-protein interactions in the regulation of this pathway, and how they contribute to co-ordinate activation steps, subcellular redistribution, substrate phosphorylation and cross-talk with other signalling pathways.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science Signaling
                Sci. Signal.
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                1945-0877
                1937-9145
                October 24 2017
                October 24 2017
                : 10
                : 502
                : eaan0804
                Article
                10.1126/scisignal.aan0804
                29066538
                © 2017

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