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      Intermolecular interactions and characterization of the novel factor Xa exosite involved in macromolecular recognition and inhibition: crystal structure of human Gla-domainless factor Xa complexed with the anticoagulant protein NAPc2 from the hematophagous nematode Ancylostoma caninum.

      Journal of Molecular Biology

      metabolism, Ancylostoma, chemistry, Thromboplastin, Structure-Activity Relationship, Protein Structure, Tertiary, Protein Binding, Molecular Sequence Data, Models, Molecular, Humans, Helminth Proteins, Factor Xa, Factor VIIa, Cattle, Binding Sites, pharmacology, Anticoagulants, Animals

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          NAPc2, an anticoagulant protein from the hematophagous nematode Ancylostoma caninum evaluated in phase-II/IIa clinical trials, inhibits the extrinsic blood coagulation pathway by a two step mechanism, initially interacting with the hitherto uncharacterized factor Xa exosite involved in macromolecular recognition and subsequently inhibiting factor VIIa (K(i)=8.4 pM) of the factor VIIa/tissue factor complex. NAPc2 is highly flexible, becoming partially ordered and undergoing significant structural changes in the C terminus upon binding to the factor Xa exosite. In the crystal structure of the ternary factor Xa/NAPc2/selectide complex, the binding interface consists of an intermolecular antiparallel beta-sheet formed by the segment of the polypeptide chain consisting of residues 74-80 of NAPc2 with the residues 86-93 of factor Xa that is additional maintained by contacts between the short helical segment (residues 67-73) and a turn (residues 26-29) of NAPc2 with the short C-terminal helix of factor Xa (residues 233-243). This exosite is physiologically highly relevant for the recognition and inhibition of factor X/Xa by macromolecular substrates and provides a structural motif for the development of a new class of inhibitors for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and angioplasty.

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