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      CNS Efficacy of Osimertinib in Patients With T790M-Positive Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Data From a Randomized Phase III Trial (AURA3)

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          Abstract

          Purpose In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there is an unmet need for EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors with improved CNS penetration and activity against CNS metastases, either at initial diagnosis or time of progression. We report the first comparative evidence of osimertinib CNS efficacy versus platinum-pemetrexed from a phase III study (AURA3; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02151981) in patients with EGFR T790M-positive advanced NSCLC who experience disease progression with prior EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Methods Patients with asymptomatic, stable CNS metastases were eligible for enrollment and were randomly assigned 2:1 to osimertinib 80 mg once daily or platinum-pemetrexed. A preplanned subgroup analysis was conducted in patients with measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions on baseline brain scan by blinded independent central neuroradiological review. The CNS evaluable for response set included only patients with one or more measurable CNS lesions. The primary objective for this analysis was CNS objective response rate (ORR). Results Of 419 patients randomly assigned to treatment, 116 had measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions, including 46 patients with measurable CNS lesions. At data cutoff (April 15, 2016), CNS ORR in patients with one or more measurable CNS lesions was 70% (21 of 30; 95% CI, 51% to 85%) with osimertinib and 31% (5 of 16; 95% CI, 11% to 59%) with platinum-pemetrexed (odds ratio, 5.13; 95% CI, 1.44 to 20.64; P = .015); the ORR was 40% (30 of 75; 95% CI, 29% to 52%) and 17% (7 of 41; 95% CI, 7% to 32%), respectively, in patients with measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions (odds ratio, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.33 to 8.81; P = .014). Median CNS duration of response in patients with measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions was 8.9 months (95% CI, 4.3 months to not calculable) for osimertinib and 5.7 months (95% CI, 4.4 to 5.7 months) for platinum-pemetrexed; median CNS progression-free survival was 11.7 months and 5.6 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.69; P = .004). Conclusion Osimertinib demonstrated superior CNS efficacy versus platinum-pemetrexed in T790M-positive advanced NSCLC.

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          Most cited references14

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          Preclinical Comparison of Osimertinib with Other EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-Mutant NSCLC Brain Metastases Models, and Early Evidence of Clinical Brain Metastases Activity.

          Approximately one-third of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring tumors with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sensitizing mutations (EGFRm) experience disease progression during treatment due to brain metastases. Despite anecdotal reports of EGFR-TKIs providing benefit in some patients with EGFRm NSCLC brain metastases, there is a clinical need for novel EGFR-TKIs with improved efficacy against brain lesions.
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            Osimertinib for pretreated EGFR Thr790Met-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (AURA2): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study.

            Osimertinib (AZD9291) is an oral, potent, irreversible EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor selective for EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor sensitising mutations, and the EGFR Thr790Met resistance mutation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of osimertinib in patients with EGFR Thr790Met-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who had progressed after previous therapy with an approved EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor.
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              Osimertinib in Pretreated T790M-Positive Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: AURA Study Phase II Extension Component.

              Purpose Osimertinib is an irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) selective for both EGFR-TKI sensitizing ( EGFRm) and T790M resistance mutations. AURA (NCT01802632) is a phase I/II clinical trial to determine the dose, safety, and efficacy of osimertinib. This article reports the results from the phase II extension component. Patients and Methods Patients with EGFR-TKI-pretreated EGFRm- and T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) received once-daily osimertinib 80 mg. T790M status was confirmed by central testing from a tumor sample taken after the most recent disease progression. Patients with asymptomatic, stable CNS metastases that did not require corticosteroids were allowed to enroll. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by independent radiology assessment. Secondary end points were disease control rate, duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), and safety. Patient-reported outcomes comprised an exploratory objective. Results In total, 201 patients received treatment, with a median treatment duration of 13.2 months at the time of data cutoff (November 1, 2015). In evaluable patients (n = 198), ORR was 62% (95% CI, 54% to 68%), and the disease control rate was 90% (95% CI, 85 to 94). Median duration of response in 122 responding patients was 15.2 months (95% CI, 11.3 to not calculable). Median PFS was 12.3 months (95% CI, 9.5 to 13.8). The most common possibly causally related adverse events (investigator assessed) were diarrhea (43%; grade ≥ 3, < 1%) and rash (grouped terms; 40%; grade ≥ 3, < 1%). Interstitial lung disease (grouped terms) was reported in eight patients (4%; grade 1, n = 2; grade 3, n = 3; grade 5, n = 3). Conclusion In patients with EGFRm T790M advanced NSCLC who progress after EGFR-TKI treatment, osimertinib provides a high ORR, encouraging PFS, and durable response.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Oncology
                JCO
                American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)
                0732-183X
                1527-7755
                September 10 2018
                September 10 2018
                : 36
                : 26
                : 2702-2709
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Yi-Long Wu, Guangdong General Hospital &amp; Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China; Myung-Ju Ahn, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine; Hye Ryun Kim, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul; Ji-Youn Han, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea; Marina Chiara Garassino, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy; Nobuyuki Katakami, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Japan; Rachel Hodge, Paramjit Kaur, Andrew P. Brown, and Dana...
                Article
                10.1200/JCO.2018.77.9363
                30059262
                ba7c0dc1-3cd6-450d-8511-4d3b09557f83
                © 2018
                History

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