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      The tremendous diversity of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge in Indonesia (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae)

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Material collected between 2010 and 2014 on the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Bali, Sumba, Sumbawa, Sulawesi, and Seram unveiled the enormous diversity of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge in this country. Five species were reported from Indonesia previously ( L. fulmeki (Ulmer), L. obscurum (Ulmer), L. necopinatum (Müller-Liebenau), L. ulmeri (Müller-Liebenau), and L. boettgeri (Ulmer)); all were described from adults only and no species were previously known at larval stage. We identified 18 new species by integrative taxonomy using genetic distance (COI, Kimura-2-parameter) and morphology, and they are described and illustrated based on their larvae. Another species, L. multus (Müller-Liebenau) from Malaysia, was also found in Indonesia, increasing the total number of species in Indonesia to 24. Seven morpho-groups of species are proposed based on morphological characters and a key to the larvae of all species from Indonesia and adjacent countries is provided. The total number of Labiobaetis species worldwide is augmented to 123. The examination of the new species allowed us to slightly modify the generic attributes of the larvae. The interspecific K2P distances are usually between 11% and 24%, the intraspecific distances are usually between 0% and 3%. The remarkable richness of the genus in Indonesia is discussed.

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          Most cited references 59

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          A General System for Coding Taxonomic Descriptions

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            Biological identifications of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) using DNA barcodes

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              The towering orogeny of New Guinea as a trigger for arthropod megadiversity.

              Early studies on Melanesian mountain systems provided insights for fundamental evolutionary and ecological concepts. These island-like systems are thought to provide opportunities in the form of newly formed, competition-free niches. Here we show that a hyperdiverse radiation of freshwater arthropods originated in the emerging central New Guinea orogen, out of Australia, about 10 million years ago. Further diversification was mainly allopatric, with repeated more recent colonization of lowlands as they emerged in the form of colliding oceanic island arcs, continental fragments and the Papuan Peninsula, as well as recolonization of the central orogen. We unveil a constant and ongoing process of lineage accumulation while the carrying capacity of the island is about to be reached, suggesting that lineage diversification speed now exceeds that of landmass/new ecological opportunity formation. Therefore, the central orogeny of New Guinea acts as a motor of diversification for the entire region.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2019
                04 December 2019
                : 895
                : 1-117
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Museum of Zoology, Palais de Rumine, Place Riponne 6, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland Museum of Zoology Lausanne Switzerland
                [2 ] University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Ecology and Evolution, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland University of Lausanne Lausanne Switzerland
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Thomas Kaltenbach ( thomas.kaltenbach@ 123456bluewin.ch )

                Academic editor: L. Pereira-da-Conceicoa

                Article
                38576
                10.3897/zookeys.895.38576
                6906171
                Thomas Kaltenbach, Jean-Luc Gattolliat

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                none
                Categories
                Research Article
                Arthropoda
                Baetidae
                Baetoidea
                Ephemeroptera
                Hexapoda
                Insecta
                Invertebrata
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Neogene
                Asia
                Far East
                Indonesia

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