<p class="first" id="d7097841e140">As the primary means of communication, voice plays
an important role in daily life.
Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and
the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex
fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle
activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking
voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate
meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important
implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology
applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the
physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control
of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current
efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also
critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal
theory of voice production and perception are discussed.