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      Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

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          Abstract

          Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive approach that can visualize blood vessels down to the capillary level. With the advent of high-speed OCT and efficient algorithms, practical OCTA of ocular circulation is now available to ophthalmologists. Clinical investigations that used OCTA have increased exponentially in the past few years. This review will cover the history of OCTA and survey its most important clinical applications. The salient problems in the interpretation and analysis of OCTA are described, and recent advances are highlighted.

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          Most cited references92

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          Optical coherence tomography.

          A technique called optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging in biological systems. OCT uses low-coherence interferometry to produce a two-dimensional image of optical scattering from internal tissue microstructures in a way that is analogous to ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging. OCT has longitudinal and lateral spatial resolutions of a few micrometers and can detect reflected signals as small as approximately 10(-10) of the incident optical power. Tomographic imaging is demonstrated in vitro in the peripapillary area of the retina and in the coronary artery, two clinically relevant examples that are representative of transparent and turbid media, respectively.
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            Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography

            Amplitude decorrelation measurement is sensitive to transverse flow and immune to phase noise in comparison to Doppler and other phase-based approaches. However, the high axial resolution of OCT makes it very sensitive to the pulsatile bulk motion noise in the axial direction. To overcome this limitation, we developed split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of flow detection. The full OCT spectrum was split into several narrower bands. Inter-B-scan decorrelation was computed using the spectral bands separately and then averaged. The SSADA algorithm was tested on in vivo images of the human macula and optic nerve head. It significantly improved both SNR for flow detection and connectivity of microvascular network when compared to other amplitude-decorrelation algorithms.
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              Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma.

              To compare optic disc perfusion between normal subjects and subjects with glaucoma using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography and to detect optic disc perfusion changes in glaucoma.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
                Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci
                iovs
                iovs
                iovs
                Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
                The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
                0146-0404
                1552-5783
                13 July 2016
                July 2016
                : 57
                : 9
                : OCT27-OCT36
                Affiliations
                [1]Casey Eye Institute Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States
                Author notes
                Correspondence: David Huang, Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, 3375 S.W. Terwilliger Boulevard, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA; davidhuang@ 123456alum.mit.edu .
                Article
                iovs-57-101-57 IOVS-15-19043
                10.1167/iovs.15-19043
                4968919
                27409483
                ba919b3f-01ca-4beb-a23d-b4b2e9dada37

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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