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      Phenolic acids: Natural versatile molecules with promising therapeutic applications

      review-article
      a , b , *
      Biotechnology Reports
      Elsevier
      Phytochemical, Phenolic acids, Natural medicine, Antioxidant, Biomedical applications

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          Highlights

          • Phenolic acids are key class of dietary polyphenols, natural antioxidants.

          • They exhibit a variety of functions including plant growth, development, and defense.

          • They are precursors of other significant bioactive molecules regularly used for therapeutic, cosmetics, and food industries.

          • These dietary antioxidants shields against growth and evolution in pathological conditions arise from oxidative stress.

          Abstract

          Plant phenolics are considered to be a vital human dietary component and exhibit a tremendous antioxidant activity as well as other health benefits. Epidemiology evidence indicates that a diet rich in antioxidant fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of many oxidative stress related diseases viz. cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular. The number and position of hydroxyl group in a particular phenolic compound leads to the variation in their antioxidant potential. Polyphenols are the main source of dietary antioxidants, and are effortlessly absorbed in the intestine. Phenolic acids, a sub class of plant phenolics, possess phenol moiety and resonance stabilized structure which causes the H-atom donation results in antioxidant property through radical scavenging mechanism. Other mode such as radical quenching via electron donation and singlet oxygen quenching are also known for the antioxidant activity of phenolic acids. Furthermore, phenolic acids are found ubiquitously and well documented for other health protective effects like antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic etc. The contribution emphasize on the phenolic acids potential in drug discovery. In addition their occurrence, biosynthesis, metabolism and health effects are discussed in detail.

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          Most cited references137

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          The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer.

          Flavonoids are nearly ubiquitous in plants and are recognized as the pigments responsible for the colors of leaves, especially in autumn. They are rich in seeds, citrus fruits, olive oil, tea, and red wine. They are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions. This basic structure is shared by tocopherols (vitamin E). Flavonoids can be subdivided according to the presence of an oxy group at position 4, a double bond between carbon atoms 2 and 3, or a hydroxyl group in position 3 of the C (middle) ring. These characteristics appear to also be required for best activity, especially antioxidant and antiproliferative, in the systems studied. The particular hydroxylation pattern of the B ring of the flavonoles increases their activities, especially in inhibition of mast cell secretion. Certain plants and spices containing flavonoids have been used for thousands of years in traditional Eastern medicine. In spite of the voluminous literature available, however, Western medicine has not yet used flavonoids therapeutically, even though their safety record is exceptional. Suggestions are made where such possibilities may be worth pursuing.
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            Natural products and plant disease resistance.

            R Dixon (2001)
            Plants elaborate a vast array of natural products, many of which have evolved to confer selective advantage against microbial attack. Recent advances in molecular technology, aided by the enormous power of large-scale genomics initiatives, are leading to a more complete understanding of the enzymatic machinery that underlies the often complex pathways of plant natural product biosynthesis. Meanwhile, genetic and reverse genetic approaches are providing evidence for the importance of natural products in host defence. Metabolic engineering of natural product pathways is now a feasible strategy for enhancement of plant disease resistance.
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              Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids.

              The recent explosion of interest in the bioactivity of the flavonoids of higher plants is due, at least in part, to the potential health benefits of these polyphenolic components of major dietary constituents. This review article discusses the biological properties of the flavonoids and focuses on the relationship between their antioxidant activity, as hydrogen donating free radical scavengers, and their chemical structures. This culminates in a proposed hierarchy of antioxidant activity in the aqueous phase. The cumulative findings concerning structure-antioxidant activity relationships in the lipophilic phase derive from studies on fatty acids, liposomes, and low-density lipoproteins; the factors underlying the influence of the different classes of polyphenols in enhancing their resistance to oxidation are discussed and support the contention that the partition coefficients of the flavonoids as well as their rates of reaction with the relevant radicals define the antioxidant activities in the lipophilic phase.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biotechnol Rep (Amst)
                Biotechnol Rep (Amst)
                Biotechnology Reports
                Elsevier
                2215-017X
                20 August 2019
                December 2019
                20 August 2019
                : 24
                : e00370
                Affiliations
                [a ]Discipline of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol Campus, Indore, Madhya Pradesh-453552, India
                [b ]Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh-221005, India
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. nidhigoel.chem@ 123456bhu.ac.in
                Article
                S2215-017X(19)30238-3 e00370
                10.1016/j.btre.2019.e00370
                6734135
                31516850
                ba9d231a-bb81-449e-890a-81f9ea0b654e
                © 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 28 April 2019
                : 4 July 2019
                : 12 August 2019
                Categories
                Article

                phytochemical,phenolic acids,natural medicine,antioxidant,biomedical applications

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