A marked increase in the coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality of working-age (35–64 years) men and women occurred in Argentina in the 1960s and 1970s. CHD is the leading cause of death in men. In 1978, Argentine men had also one of the highest CHD mortality rates (603.9/100,000) in international mortality statistics and Argentine women (155.2/100,000) were also at the top of these statistics. Stroke mortality has also increased in the younger age-group of men and women over the last decade. The high CHD and stroke mortality rates are compatible with a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Several surveys have demonstrated that mean serum total cholesterol levels are high, the prevalence of smokers is increasing and the proportion of adequately treated hypertensive patients is low. These results suggest that measures should be introduced to change the Argentine way of life to try to initiate a decline in cardiovascular mortality.