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      Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and health-related quality of life among university students in Turkey


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          The COVID-19 health crisis has reached pandemic scale spreading globally. The present study examines the COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on psychological and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among university students in Turkey. A cross-sectional survey design was used for data collection. From May 11th to May 15th 2020, the study utilized snowball sampling techniques to gather data through an online survey. The pandemic’s psychological effects on participants were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey assess related HRQOL were used to make mental health assessments. 1120 university students were contacted to complete the survey. Of these, a total of 1095 completed the survey, translating to a participation rate of 97.7%. Overall, 64.6%, 48.6% and 45.2%, and 34.5% of all participants self-reported symptomatic signs of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively. Female gender and poor family relationships were identified as risk factors for probably PTSD, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as well. The mean scores of Physical Component Summary (PCS-12) and Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) were 66.99 ± 2.14 and 40.76 ± 2.31, respectively. Students suspected of a history with PTSD had considerably lower total scores for PCS-12 and MCS-12, when cross checked for similarity to those without such a history. The findings of this research suggest that evidence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and stress is commonly apparent among university students during the period of the COVID-19 crisis. Prevention and intervention approaches to attenuate the psychosocial impact should be an integral component of crisis response during pandemic conditions.

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          Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China

          Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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            Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health in the General Population: A Systematic Review

            Highlights • The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in unprecedented hazards to mental health globally. • Relatively high rates of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, and stress were reported in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in eight countries. • Common risk factors associated with mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic include female gender, younger age group (≤40 years), presence of chronic/psychiatric illnesses, unemployment, student status, and frequent exposure to social media/news concerning COVID-19. • Mitigation of COVID-19 induced psychological distress requires government intervention and individual efforts.
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              The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China

              Highlights • Methods of guiding students to effectively and appropriately regulate their emotions during public health emergencies and avoid losses caused by crisis events have become an urgent problem for colleges and universities. Therefore, we investigated and analyzed the mental health status of college students during the epidemic for the following purposes. (1) To evaluate the mental situation of college students during the epidemic; (2) to provide a theoretical basis for psychological interventions with college students; and (3) to provide a basis for the promulgation of national and governmental policies.

                Author and article information

                Curr Psychol
                Curr Psychol
                Current Psychology (New Brunswick, N.j.)
                Springer US (New York )
                31 March 2021
                : 1-10
                [1 ]GRID grid.448756.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0399 5672, Department of Public Health Nursing, Yusuf Serefoglu Faculty of Health Sciences, , Kilis 7 Aralık University, ; Kilis, Turkey
                [2 ]GRID grid.411709.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0399 3319, Department of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, , Giresun University, ; Giresun, Turkey
                [3 ]GRID grid.411822.c, ISNI 0000 0001 2033 6079, Department of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, , Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, ; Zonguldak, Turkey
                Author information
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                : 24 March 2021

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                coronavirus,universities,students,mental health,quality of life
                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                coronavirus, universities, students, mental health, quality of life


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