The aim of this study was to evaluate the wear properties of opposed dental ceramic restorative CAD/CAM materials and several posterior direct restorative composite resins. Three kinds of dental ceramics CAD/CAM materials (monolithic zirconia, lithium disilicate, leucite) and four dental composite resins—that is, MI Gracefil, Gradia Direct P, Estelite Σ Quick, and Filtek Supreme Ultra—were used in this study. For each of the 12 groups (three ceramics × four composite resins), five each of a canine-shaped ceramic specimen and a cuboidal shape opposing composite resin were prepared. All of the specimens were tested in a thermomechanical loading machine (50 N, 100,000 cycles, 5/55 °C). Wear losses of ceramic specimens and composite resin specimens were evaluated using a three-dimensional profiling system and an electronic scale, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test with Bonferroni’s correction. Zirconia showed significantly less volumetric loss than lithium disilicate or leucite regardless of composite resin type ( p > 0.05/3 = 0.017), and that Estelite Σ Quick showed significantly more weight loss than Filtek Supreme Ultra, MI Gracefil, or Gradia Direct P regardless of ceramic type ( p > 0.05/6 = 0.083). Zirconia showed less volumetric loss than lithium disilicate or leucite. Some composite resins opposing ceramics showed considerable weight loss.