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      The role of city size and urban form in the surface urban heat island

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      1 , 1 , , 1 , 2
      Scientific Reports
      Nature Publishing Group UK

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          Abstract

          Urban climate is determined by a variety of factors, whose knowledge can help to attenuate heat stress in the context of ongoing urbanization and climate change. We study the influence of city size and urban form on the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon in Europe and find a complex interplay between UHI intensity and city size, fractality, and anisometry. Due to correlations among these urban factors, interactions in the multi-linear regression need to be taken into account. We find that among the largest 5,000 cities, the UHI intensity increases with the logarithm of the city size and with the fractal dimension, but decreases with the logarithm of the anisometry. Typically, the size has the strongest influence, followed by the compactness, and the smallest is the influence of the degree to which the cities stretch. Accordingly, from the point of view of UHI alleviation, small, disperse, and stretched cities are preferable. However, such recommendations need to be balanced against e.g. positive agglomeration effects of large cities. Therefore, trade-offs must be made regarding local and global aims.

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          Regression Quantiles

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            The energetic basis of the urban heat island

            T. Oke (1982)
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              Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ca-dr@rybski.de
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                6 July 2017
                6 July 2017
                2017
                : 7
                : 4791
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0493 9031, GRID grid.4556.2, , Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, ; P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam, D-14412 Germany
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0942 1117, GRID grid.11348.3f, Department of Geo- and Environmental Sciences, , University of Potsdam, ; Potsdam, Germany
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6125-7705
                Article
                4242
                10.1038/s41598-017-04242-2
                5500494
                28684850
                baaf0ecb-7ee5-43cd-9c6f-1cfbd7cb1df5
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 12 October 2016
                : 11 May 2017
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