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      Paeoniflorin improves cardiac function and decreases adverse postinfarction left ventricular remodeling in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction

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          Paeoniflorin (PF) is the active component of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. or Paeonia veitchii Lynch. This study was, therefore, aimed to evaluate the improvement and mechanism of the PF on ventricular remodeling in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

          Materials and methods

          In this study, AMI model was established by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery in Wistar rats. After 4 weeks gavage of PF, the apparent signs and the left ventricle weight index of Wistar rats were observed. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Changes in cardiac morphology were observed by pathologic examination, and apoptosis was observed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) interleukin-10 (IL-10) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Immunohistochemistry and Western blot method were applied to detect Caspase-3 and Caspase-9.


          Compared with the model control, the survival conditions of rats in all treatment groups were generally improved after PF treatment. LVEF was significantly increased, and both left ventricular end-diastolic inner diameter and left ventricular end-systolic inner diameter were significantly reduced. Moreover, pathologic examination showed that the myocardium degeneration of the rats treated with PF was decreased, including neater arrangement, more complete myofilament, more uniform gap and less interstitial collagen fibers. Furthermore, the mitochondrial structure of cardiomyocytes was significantly improved. The ultrastructure was clear, and the arrangement of myofilament was more regular. Also, the expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 was inhibited, and apoptosis was obviously reduced in the PF treatment groups. BNP, TNF-α and IL-6 were also decreased and IL-10 was increased in the treated rats.


          PF could significantly improve the LVEF of rats. It decreased adverse left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rat models. The potential mechanism could be that PF decreased and inhibited BNP, TNF-α and IL-6, increased IL-10 and further inhibited the expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, thus promoting ventricular remodeling.

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          Most cited references 27

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          B-type natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular disease.

          Natriuretic peptide hormones, a family of vasoactive peptides with many favourable physiological properties, have emerged as important candidates for development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in cardiovascular disease. The rapid incorporation into clinical practice of bioassays to measure natriuretic peptide concentrations, and drugs that augment the biological actions of this system, show the potential for translational research to improve patient care. Here, we focus on the physiology of the natriuretic peptide system, measurement of circulating concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal fragment of its prohormone (N-terminal BNP) to diagnose heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, measurement of BNP and N-terminal BNP to assess prognosis in patients with cardiac abnormalities, and use of recombinant human BNP (nesiritide) and vasopeptidase inhibitors to treat heart failure.
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            Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha reduces infarction and attenuates progression of cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction in the mouse.

            The aim of this research was to test whether constitutive expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1alpha) influences infarction size and cardiac performance after myocardial infarction. A major question in clinical medicine is whether infarction size and border zone remodeling of the heart can be influenced by the overexpression of specific genes in the peri-infarction region. We investigated the role of constitutive HIF-1alpha expression in acute myocardial infarction using a transgenic model. Transgenic mice containing the HIF-1alpha gene under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter were constructed. Myocardial infarction was produced by coronary ligation in HIF-1alpha transgenic mice and control animals. Extent of infarction was then quantitated by two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography as well as by molecular and pathologic analysis of heart samples in infarct, peri-infarct, and remote heart regions at serial time points. Constitutive overexpression of HIF-1alpha in the murine heart resulted in attenuated infarct size and improved cardiac function 4 weeks after myocardial infarction. Significantly, we found an increase in both capillary density as well as vascular endothelial growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in peri-infarct and infarct regions in the hearts of constitutive HIF-1alpha-expressing animals compared to control animals. These observations suggest the involvement of HIF-1alpha in myocardial remodeling and peri-infarct vascularization. Our results show that supranormal amounts of this peptide protect against extension of infarction and improve border zone survival in myocardial infarction.
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              Pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome.

              Despite improvements in interventional and pharmacological therapy for atherosclerotic disease, it is still the leading cause of death in the developed world. Hence, there is a need for further development of more effective therapeutic approaches. This requires better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology of the disease. Recent research in the last decade has changed our view of acute coronary syndrome (ACS): from a mere lipid deposition to an inflammatory disease; from ACS exclusively due to plaque rupture to the novel definitions of plaque erosion or calcified nodule; from the notion of a superimposed thrombus with necessary lethal consequences to the concept of healed plaques and thrombus contributing to plaque progression. In the hope of improving our understanding of ACS, all these recently discovered concepts are reviewed in this article.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                12 April 2018
                : 12
                : 823-836
                Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jun Li; Jie Wang, Guang’anmen Hospital, No. 5, Bixiange Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, China, Tel +86 010 8800 1817, Email gamyylj@ 123456163.com ; jiewang1001@ 123456126.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2018 Chen et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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