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      Study on the Mechanism of Action of Paclitaxel-Loaded Polylactic-co-glycolic Acid Nanoparticles in Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To study effective carriers that can enhance the antitumor effect of paclitaxel (PTX).

          Methods

          PTX-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) (PTX-PLGA NPs), constructed using the emulsification solvent evaporation method, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells were divided into the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group, PLGA NPs group, PTX group, and PTX-PLGA NPs group. Cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, and cell migration and invasion were assessed using Transwell assay.

          Results

          PTX-PLGA NPs were smooth in the surface and spherical in shape, with a particle size of 268 ± 1.3 nm. Both PTX and PTX-PLGA NPs could effectively inhibit the activity of A549 and H1650 cells. At 12 and 24 h, PTX-PLGA NPs presented weaker inhibition on the activity of NSCLC cells than PTX, but at 48 and 72 h, PTX-PLGA NPs presented stronger inhibition. Compared with PTX, PTX-PLGA NPs were more effective in enhancing apoptosis and inhibiting migration and invasion of NSCLC cells.

          Conclusion

          With good sustained release and the ability to promote cellular uptake, PTX-PLGA NPs can strongly inhibit the malignant activities of NSCLC cells, which can be used as a promising drug carrier.

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          Most cited references35

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          The biology and management of non-small cell lung cancer.

          Important advancements in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been achieved over the past two decades, increasing our understanding of the disease biology and mechanisms of tumour progression, and advancing early detection and multimodal care. The use of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunotherapy has led to unprecedented survival benefits in selected patients. However, the overall cure and survival rates for NSCLC remain low, particularly in metastatic disease. Therefore, continued research into new drugs and combination therapies is required to expand the clinical benefit to a broader patient population and to improve outcomes in NSCLC.
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            Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: Epidemiology, Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment

            Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the science of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Screening has been introduced with the goal of early detection. The National Lung Screening Trial found a lung cancer mortality benefit of 20% and a 6.7% decrease in all-cause mortality with the use of low-dose chest computed tomography in high-risk individuals. The treatment of lung cancer has also evolved with the introduction of several lines of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and NTRK mutations. Similarly, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have dramatically changed the landscape of NSCLC treatment. Furthermore, the results of new trials continue to help us understand the role of these novel agents and which patients are more likely to benefit; ICIs are now part of the first-line NSCLC treatment armamentarium as monotherapy, combined with chemotherapy, or after definite chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage III unresectable NSCLC. Expression of programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 in malignant cells has been studied as a potential biomarker for response to ICIs. However, important drawbacks exist that limit its discriminatory potential. Identification of accurate predictive biomarkers beyond programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 expression remains essential to select the most appropriate candidates for ICI therapy. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the proper sequence and combinations of these new agents; however, the field is moving rapidly, and the overall direction is optimistic.
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              Apoptosis in cancer: from pathogenesis to treatment

              Apoptosis is an ordered and orchestrated cellular process that occurs in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also one of the most studied topics among cell biologists. An understanding of the underlying mechanism of apoptosis is important as it plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In some, the problem is due to too much apoptosis, such as in the case of degenerative diseases while in others, too little apoptosis is the culprit. Cancer is one of the scenarios where too little apoptosis occurs, resulting in malignant cells that will not die. The mechanism of apoptosis is complex and involves many pathways. Defects can occur at any point along these pathways, leading to malignant transformation of the affected cells, tumour metastasis and resistance to anticancer drugs. Despite being the cause of problem, apoptosis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer as it is a popular target of many treatment strategies. The abundance of literature suggests that targeting apoptosis in cancer is feasible. However, many troubling questions arise with the use of new drugs or treatment strategies that are designed to enhance apoptosis and critical tests must be passed before they can be used safely in human subjects.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Comput Math Methods Med
                Comput Math Methods Med
                cmmm
                Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
                Hindawi
                1748-670X
                1748-6718
                2022
                6 April 2022
                : 2022
                : 8524951
                Affiliations
                1Department of Aspiration Medicine, Lianshui County People's Hospital, Lianshui, Huaian 223400, Jiangsu, China
                2Department of Radiotherapy, Lianshui County People's Hospital, Lianshui, Huaian 223400, Jiangsu, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Min Tang

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0530-7223
                Article
                10.1155/2022/8524951
                9007685
                35432585
                bab33268-ef36-49f7-a28d-b20af8f83809
                Copyright © 2022 Yangsong Zuo et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 28 December 2021
                : 27 January 2022
                : 5 February 2022
                Categories
                Research Article

                Applied mathematics
                Applied mathematics

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