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      Efficiency in Complexity: Composition and Dynamic Nature of Mimivirus Replication Factories

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          ABSTRACT

          The recent discovery of multiple giant double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses blurred the consensual distinction between viruses and cells due to their size, as well as to their structural and genetic complexity. A dramatic feature revealed by these viruses as well as by many positive-strand RNA viruses is their ability to rapidly form elaborate intracellular organelles, termed “viral factories,” where viral progeny are continuously generated. Here we report the first isolation of viral factories at progressive postinfection time points. The isolated factories were subjected to mass spectrometry-based proteomics, bioinformatics, and imaging analyses. These analyses revealed that numerous viral proteins are present in the factories but not in mature virions, thus implying that multiple and diverse proteins are required to promote the efficiency of viral factories as “production lines” of viral progeny. Moreover, our results highlight the dynamic and highly complex nature of viral factories, provide new and general insights into viral infection, and substantiate the intriguing notion that viral factories may represent the living state of viruses.

          IMPORTANCE Large dsDNA viruses such as vaccinia virus and the giant mimivirus, as well as many positive-strand RNA viruses, generate elaborate cytoplasmic organelles in which the multiple and diverse transactions required for viral replication and assembly occur. These organelles, which were termed “viral factories,” are attracting much interest due to the increasing realization that the rapid and continuous production of viral progeny is a direct outcome of the elaborate structure and composition of the factories, which act as efficient production lines. To get new insights into the nature and function of viral factories, we devised a method that allows, for the first time, the isolation of these organelles. Analyses of the isolated factories generated at different times postinfection by mass spectrometry-based proteomics provide new perceptions of their role and reveal the highly dynamic nature of these organelles.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Journal of Virology
          J. Virol.
          American Society for Microbiology
          0022-538X
          1098-5514
          October 14 2016
          November 01 2016
          August 31 2016
          : 90
          : 21
          : 10039-10047
          Article
          10.1128/JVI.01319-16
          5068508
          27581975
          babdeb6b-fa5a-40bc-8a1f-6f3bbf0e2cbe
          © 2016
          History

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