The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH 4 and N 2O emissions from agricultural fields. The results showed that NT/RT significantly mitigated the overall global warming potential (GWP) of CH 4 and N 2O emissions by 6.6% as compared with conventional tillage (CT). Rotation cropping systems and crop straw remove facilitated no-tillage (NT) to reduce the CH 4, N 2O, or overall GWP both in upland and paddy field. NT significantly mitigated the overall GWP when the percentage of basal N fertilizer (P BN) >50%, when tillage duration > 10 years or rainfed in upland, while when P BN <50%, when duration between 5 and 10 years, or with continuous flooding in paddy field. RT significantly reduced the overall GWP under single crop monoculture system in upland. These results suggested that assessing the effectiveness of NT/RT on the mitigation of GHG emission should consider the interaction of NT/RT with other agronomy practices and land use type.