+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in young male soccer players


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Nutrition is vital in health and sports performance by improving anthropometric-related parameters and dietary habits, especially in the youngest ages. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been highly recognized for its positive health effects and low adverse environmental impact.


          We aimed to characterize adherence to the MD and analyze its association with anthropometric parameters in young soccer players.


          In the present study, 132 male young soccer players from under 9 to under 15 categories (aged 7 to 15 years) from a Portuguese football club participated. The Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for Children and Adolescents (KIDMED) questionnaire was applied to assess adherence to the MD. Anthropometric-related parameters, including body mass, height, triceps skinfold thickness (TSKF), suprailiac skinfold thickness (SISKF), body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF), were determined. The differences between groups were performed accordingly to normal and non-normal distribution. Spearman’s correlations were performed to analyze the hypothetical correlation between KIDMED and BMI.


          Players reached an average KIDMED score of 8.36 ± 1.92, showing that 68.2% (n = 90) reached high adherence to the MD, 31.1% (n = 41) had moderate adherence to the MD, and 0.78% (n = 1) had poor adherence to the MD. When the analysis was made for age group and BMI classification, no significant differences were observed in adherence to the MD. Considering the main characteristics of the MD, 50.8% consumed fruit (vs. 49,2%), 52.3% consumed vegetables (vs. 47,7%), and only 20% consumed oleaginous dried fruits (vs. 80%). Dairy consumption throughout the day was 49,2% (vs. no: 50,8%).


          Data from the present study showed that many soccer players adhered to the MD, and no differences were observed for age group or BMI classification.

          Related collections

          Most cited references41

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Correlation Coefficients

          Correlation in the broadest sense is a measure of an association between variables. In correlated data, the change in the magnitude of 1 variable is associated with a change in the magnitude of another variable, either in the same (positive correlation) or in the opposite (negative correlation) direction. Most often, the term correlation is used in the context of a linear relationship between 2 continuous variables and expressed as Pearson product-moment correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient is typically used for jointly normally distributed data (data that follow a bivariate normal distribution). For nonnormally distributed continuous data, for ordinal data, or for data with relevant outliers, a Spearman rank correlation can be used as a measure of a monotonic association. Both correlation coefficients are scaled such that they range from -1 to +1, where 0 indicates that there is no linear or monotonic association, and the relationship gets stronger and ultimately approaches a straight line (Pearson correlation) or a constantly increasing or decreasing curve (Spearman correlation) as the coefficient approaches an absolute value of 1. Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals can be used to address the statistical significance of the results and to estimate the strength of the relationship in the population from which the data were sampled. The aim of this tutorial is to guide researchers and clinicians in the appropriate use and interpretation of correlation coefficients.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents

            OBJECTIVE: To construct growth curves for school-aged children and adolescents that accord with the WHO Child Growth Standards for preschool children and the body mass index (BMI) cut-offs for adults. METHODS: Data from the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO growth reference (1-24 years) were merged with data from the under-fives growth standards' cross-sectional sample (18-71 months) to smooth the transition between the two samples. State-of-the-art statistical methods used to construct the WHO Child Growth Standards (0-5 years), i.e. the Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method with appropriate diagnostic tools for the selection of best models, were applied to this combined sample. FINDINGS: The merged data sets resulted in a smooth transition at 5 years for height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age. For BMI-for-age across all centiles the magnitude of the difference between the two curves at age 5 years is mostly 0.0 kg/m² to 0.1 kg/m². At 19 years, the new BMI values at +1 standard deviation (SD) are 25.4 kg/m² for boys and 25.0 kg/m² for girls. These values are equivalent to the overweight cut-off for adults (> 25.0 kg/m²). Similarly, the +2 SD value (29.7 kg/m² for both sexes) compares closely with the cut-off for obesity (> 30.0 kg/m²). CONCLUSION: The new curves are closely aligned with the WHO Child Growth Standards at 5 years, and the recommended adult cut-offs for overweight and obesity at 19 years. They fill the gap in growth curves and provide an appropriate reference for the 5 to 19 years age group.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

              It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

                Author and article information

                BMC Nutr
                BMC Nutr
                BMC Nutrition
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 September 2023
                4 September 2023
                : 9
                : 101
                [1 ]GRID grid.27883.36, ISNI 0000 0000 8824 6371, Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, , Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, ; Viana do Castelo, 4900-347 Portugal
                [2 ]Research Center in Sports Performance, Recreation, Innovation and Technology (SPRINT), Viana do Castelo, Melgaço, 4960-320 Portugal
                [3 ]GRID grid.5808.5, ISNI 0000 0001 1503 7226, Tumour & Microenvironment Interactions Group, INEB- Institute of Biomedical Engineering, i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, , Universidade do Porto, ; Rua Alfredo Allen, Porto, 4200-153 Portugal
                [4 ]Instituto Universitário de Ciências da Saúde, Rua Central de Gandra, Paredes, 4585-116 Portugal
                [5 ]GRID grid.8393.1, ISNI 0000000119412521, Faculty of Sports Science, , University of Extremadura, ; Cáceres, Spain
                [6 ]GRID grid.413026.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1762 5445, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, , University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, ; Ardabil, 5619911367 H.N Iran
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 19 April 2023
                : 30 August 2023
                Custom metadata
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                anthropometry,youth,nutrition; mediterranean,team sports


                Comment on this article