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Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

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      Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC 50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H 2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound.

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      Most cited references 64

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      Isolation of Zika virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Malaysia.

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        Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae).

        Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. In this study, the oils of 41 plants were evaluated for their effects against third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. At first, the oils were surveyed against A. aegypti using a 50-ppm solution. Thirteen oils from 41 plants (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum and sandalwood) induced 100% mortality after 24 h, or even after shorter periods. The best oils were tested against third-instar larvae of the three mosquito species in concentrations of 1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 ppm. The lethal concentration 50 values of these oils ranged between 1 and 101.3 ppm against A. aegypti, between 9.7 and 101.4 ppm for A. stephensi and between 1 and 50.2 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus.
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          Marine natural products.

          This review covers the literature published in 2005 for marine natural products, with 704 citations (493 for the period January to December 2005) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, coelenterates, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates and echinoderms. The emphasis is on new compounds (812 for 2005), together with their relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Laboratório Integrado de Bioquímica Hatisaburo Masuda (LIBHM); Núcleo em Pesquisas Ecológicas e Desenvolvimento Sócio-Ambiental de Macaé (NUPEM), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro 27965-045, Brazil; orlando_neto.88@ (O.S.-N.); simoneazgomes@ (S.A.G.); rodrigo.nunes.da.fonseca@ (R.N.F.); jacksonmenezes@ (J.S.-M.); jorgemoraes@ (J.L.C.M.); eldocampos@ (E.C.); flaviamury@ (F.B.M.)
            [2 ]Grupo de Produtos Naturais de Organismos Aquáticos (GPNOA), Núcleo em Ecologia e Desenvolvimento Sócio-Ambiental de Macaé (NUPEM), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro 27965-045, Brazil; angelica.r.soares@ (A.R.S.); fernandanupem@ (F.L.S.M.)
            [3 ]Laboratório Integrado de Ciências Morfofuncionais (LICMF), Núcleo em Ecologia e Desenvolvimento Sócio-Ambiental de Macaé (NUPEM), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro 27965-045, Brazil
            [4 ]Laboratório de Entomologia e Fitopatologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro 28013-602, Brazil; richardiansamuels@
            [5 ]Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular, (INCT-EM), Rio de Janeiro 21941-590, Brazil
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: joseroberto@ ; Tel.: +55-22-2141-3900
            Role: Academic Editor
            Mar Drugs
            Mar Drugs
            Marine Drugs
            25 January 2016
            February 2016
            : 14
            : 2
            26821032 4771978 10.3390/md14020020 marinedrugs-14-00020
            © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

            This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (



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