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      Global patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma management from diagnosis to death: the BRIDGE Study

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          Abstract

          Background & Aims

          Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The global HCC BRIDGE study was a multiregional, large-scale, longitudinal cohort study undertaken to improve understanding of real-life management of patients with HCC, from diagnosis to death.

          Methods

          Data were collected retrospectively from January 2005 to September 2012 by chart reviews of eligible patients newly diagnosed with HCC at participating institutions.

          Results

          Forty-two sites in 14 countries contributed final data for 18 031 patients. Asia accounted for 67% of patients, Europe for 20% and North America for 13%. As expected, the most common risk factor was hepatitis C virus in North America, Europe and Japan, and hepatitis B virus in China, South Korea and Taiwan. The most common Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage at diagnosis was C in North America, Europe, China and South Korea, and A in Taiwan and Japan. Across all stages, first HCC treatment was most frequently transarterial chemoembolization in North America, Europe, China and South Korea, percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation in Japan and resection in Taiwan. Survival from first HCC treatment varied significantly by region, with median overall survival not reached for Taiwan and 60, 33, 31, 24 and 23 months for Japan, North America, South Korea, Europe and China respectively ( P < 0.0001).

          Conclusions

          Initial results from the BRIDGE study confirm previously reported regional trends in patient demographic characteristics and HCC risk factors, document the heterogeneity of treatment approaches across regions/countries and underscore the need for earlier HCC diagnosis worldwide.

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          Most cited references25

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          Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver consensus recommendations on hepatocellular carcinoma.

          The Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) convened an international working party on the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in December 2008 to develop consensus recommendations. The working party consisted of expert hepatologist, hepatobiliary surgeon, radiologist, and oncologist from Asian-Pacific region, who were requested to make drafts prior to the consensus meeting held at Bali, Indonesia on 4 December 2008. The quality of existing evidence and strength of recommendations were ranked from 1 (highest) to 5 (lowest) and from A (strongest) to D (weakest), respectively, according to the Oxford system of evidence-based approach for developing the consensus statements. Participants of the consensus meeting assessed the quality of cited studies and assigned grades to the recommendation statements. Finalized recommendations were presented at the fourth APASL single topic conference on viral-related HCC at Bali, Indonesia and approved by the participants of the conference.
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            The Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. An examination of its reliability and validity in a research setting.

            The Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS) is widely used to quantify the functional status of cancer patients. However, limited data exist documenting its reliability and validity. The KPS is used in the National Hospice Study (NHS) as both a study eligibility criterion and an outcome measure. As part of intensive training, interviewers were instructed in and tested on guidelines for determining the KPS levels of patients. After 4 months of field experience, interviewers were again tested based on narrative patient descriptions. The interrator reliability of 47 NHS interviewers was found to be 0.97. The construct validity of the KPS was analyzed, and the KPS was found to be strongly related (P less than 0.001) to two other independent measures of patient functioning. Finally, the relationship of the KPS to longevity (r = 0.30) in a population of terminal cancer patients documents its predictive validity. These findings suggest the utility of the KPS as a valuable research tool when employed by trained observers.
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              Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: 10-Year Outcome and Prognostic Factors

              OBJECTIVES: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is widely performed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there has been no report on 10-year outcome of RFA. The objective of this study was to report a 10-year consecutive case series at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: We performed 2,982 RFA treatments on 1,170 primary HCC patients and analyzed a collected database. RESULTS: Final computed tomography images showed complete tumor ablation in 2,964 (99.4%) of 2,982 treatments performed for the 1,170 primary HCC patients. With a median follow-up of 38.2 months, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 60.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 56.7–63.9%) and 27.3% (95% CI: 21.5–34.7%), respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age, antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), Child-Pugh class, tumor size, tumor number, serum des-γ-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP) level, and serum lectin-reactive α-fetoprotein level (AFP-L3) were significantly related to survival. Five- and 10-year local tumor progression rates were both 3.2% (95% CI: 2.1–4.3%). Serum DCP level alone was significantly related to local tumor progression. Five- and 10-year distant recurrence rates were 74.8% (95% CI: 71.8–77.8%) and 80.8% (95% CI: 77.4–84.3%), respectively. Anti-HCV, Child-Pugh class, platelet count, tumor size, tumor number, serum AFP level, and serum DCP level were significantly related to distant recurrence. There were 67 complications (2.2%) and 1 death (0.03%). CONCLUSIONS: RFA could be locally curative for HCC, resulting in survival for as long as 10 years, and was a safe procedure. RFA might be a first-line treatment for selected patients with early-stage HCC.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Handling Editor
                Journal
                Liver Int
                Liver Int
                liv
                Liver International
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                1478-3223
                1478-3231
                September 2015
                25 March 2015
                : 35
                : 9
                : 2155-2166
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center Goyang, Korea
                [2 ]Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center Guangzhou, China
                [3 ]Policlinic IRCCS Maggiore Hospital, University of Milan Milan, Italy
                [4 ]Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA
                [5 ]Mount Sinai Hospital New York, NY, USA
                [6 ]Taiwan National University Taipei, Taiwan
                [7 ]Kinki University School of Medicine Osaka-Sayama, Osaka, Japan
                [8 ]Birmingham University Birmingham, UK
                [9 ]Bristol-Myers Squibb Princeton, NJ, USA
                [10 ]Bristol-Myers Squibb Wallingford, CT, USA
                [11 ]University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada
                Author notes
                Joong-Won Park, MD, PhD, Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Korea, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, Gyeonggi 410-769, South Korea, Tel: 82-31-920-1605, Fax: 82-31-920-2799, e-mail: jwpark@ 123456ncc.re.kr
                Article
                10.1111/liv.12818
                4691343
                25752327
                bae514d4-4619-492b-963f-f92134aae8bd
                © 2015 The Authors. Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                History
                : 12 June 2014
                : 16 February 2015
                Categories
                Liver Cancer

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology
                disease management,epidemiology,global trends,liver cancer,observational study,risk factors,treatment patterns

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