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      Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as prognostic and predictive factor in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: A retrospective cross‐sectional study


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          This retrospective study was designed to explore whether neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic factor in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). A cohort of patients with COVID‐19 admitted to the Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University from 11 January 2020 to 3 March 2020 was retrospectively analyzed. Patients with hematologic malignancy were excluded. The NLR was calculated by dividing the neutrophil count by the lymphocyte count. NLR values were measured at the time of admission. The primary outcome was all‐cause in‐hospital mortality. A multivariate logistic analysis was performed. A total of 1004 patients with COVID‐19 were included in this study. The mortality rate was 4.0% (40 cases). The median age of nonsurvivors (68 years) was significantly older than survivors (62 years). Male sex was more predominant in nonsurvival group (27; 67.5%) than in the survival group (466; 48.3%). NLR value of nonsurvival group (median: 49.06; interquartile range [IQR]: 25.71‐69.70) was higher than that of survival group (median: 4.11; IQR: 2.44‐8.12; P < .001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, NLR  more than 11.75 was significantly correlated with all‐cause in‐hospital mortality (odds ratio = 44.351; 95% confidence interval = 4.627‐425.088). These results suggest that the NLR at hospital admission is associated with in‐hospital mortality among patients with COVID‐19. Therefore, the NLR appears to be a significant prognostic biomarker of outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID‐19. However, further investigation is needed to validate this relationship with data collected prospectively.


          • NLR is a significant prognostic biomarker of outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID‐19.

          • COVID‐19 is more likely to infected those elder men with chronic comorbidities.

          • NLR may also help in the early identification of older patients at higher risk of COVID‐19.

          • Close monitoring and timely intervention are needed for elderly patients with COVID‐19.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

            Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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              A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

              Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)

                Author and article information

                J Med Virol
                J. Med. Virol
                Journal of Medical Virology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                09 June 2020
                [ 1 ] Department of Cardiovascular Medicine Wuhan Third Hospital & Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University Wuhan Hubei China
                [ 2 ] Department of Neurology Wuhan Third Hospital & Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University Wuhan Hubei China
                [ 3 ] Department of Emergency & Critical Care Center, Beijing Anzhen Hospital Capital Medical University Beijing China
                [ 4 ] Department of Forensic Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences Central South University Changsha Hunan China
                [ 5 ] Department of Medical Records Statistics Wuhan Third Hospital & Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University Wuhan Hubei China
                [ 6 ] Department of Clinical Medicine Jianghan University Wuhan China
                [ 7 ] Department of Infectious Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease China‐Japan Friendship Hospital Beijing China
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Dongsheng Li, MD, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Wuhan Third Hospital & Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China.

                Email: dongshengli196809@ 123456163.com

                Wen Zheng, MD, PhD, and Shaoping Nie, MD, PhD, Department of Emergency & Critical Care Center, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100029, China.

                Email: zhengwen12@ 123456mails.jlu.edu.cn (WZ) and spnie@ 123456126.com (SN)

                © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 9, Words: 4903
                Funded by: Hubei Province Health and Family Planning Scientific Research Project
                Award ID: WJ2019M006
                Funded by: Hubei Province Natural Science Fund
                Award ID: 2018CFC880
                Funded by: Applied Basic Research Program of Wuhan Municipal Bureau of Science and Technology
                Award ID: 2019020701011473
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001809;
                Award ID: 81871088
                Funded by: Wuhan Municipal Population and Family Planning Commission Foundation
                Award ID: WX16C03
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.4 mode:remove_FC converted:10.06.2020

                Microbiology & Virology

                lymphopenia, neutrophils, pneumonia, prognostic, sars‐cov‐2


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