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      Mesothelioma incidence in the neighbourhood of an asbestos-cement plant located in a national priority contaminated site

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          Abstract

          BACKGROUND: An epidemic of asbestos-related disease is ongoing in most industrialized countries, mainly attributable to past occupational exposure but partly due to environmental exposure. In this perspective, the incidence of pleural mesothelioma close to a former asbestos-cement plant in a national contaminated site was estimated. METHODS: The census-tracts interested by atmospheric dispersion of facilities in the contaminated site were identified. Two subareas with different estimated environmental asbestos impact were distinguished. An ecological study at micro-geographic level was performed. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for study area and the two subareas, in comparison with region and municipality were computed. The standardized incidence rate ratio (IRR) between the two subareas was computed. RESULTS: Mesothelioma incidence in the study area was increased: 46 cases were observed with respect to 22.23 expected (SIR: 2.02). The increase was confirmed in analysis considering only the subjects without an occupationally exposure to asbestos: 19 cases among men (SIR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.49-3.88); 11 case among women (SIR = 1.34; 95% CI: 0.67-2.40). The IRR between the two subareas is less than one in overall population considering all age-classes and of 3 fold (IRR = 3.14, 95% CI: 0.65-9.17) in the age-classes below 55 years. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate an increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in the neighbourhood of asbestos-cement plant, and a possible etiological contribution of asbestos environmental exposure in detected risks.

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          Analysis of latency time and its determinants in asbestos related malignant mesothelioma cases of the Italian register.

          Italy was an important producer of raw asbestos until 1992 (when it was banned) and it is now experiencing severe public health consequences due to large-scale industrial use of asbestos in shipbuilding and repair, asbestos-cement production, railways, buildings, chemicals and many other industrial sectors. Latency of malignant mesothelioma generally shows a large variability and the relationship with the modality of asbestos exposure is still not fully clarified. We present an analysis of latency period among the case list collected by the Italian mesothelioma register (ReNaM) in the period of diagnosis 1993-2001 (2544 malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases with asbestos exposure history). Exposure is assessed retrospectively by interview. Statistical univariate analyses were performed to estimate median and variability measures of latency time by anatomical site, gender and diagnosis period. The role of diagnostic confidence level, the morphology of the tumour and the modalities of asbestos exposure were verified in a regression multivariate model. We found a median latency period of 44.6 years increasing in recent years with a linear trend. Anatomical site, gender and morphology were not relevant for MM latency time whereas a shorter latency period was documented among occupationally exposed subjects (43 years) with respect to environmentally and household exposed ones (48 years).
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            Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos

            Insufficient evidence exists on the risk of pleural mesothelioma from non-occupational exposure to asbestos. A population-based case–control study was carried out in six areas from Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Information was collected for 215 new histologically confirmed cases and 448 controls. A panel of industrial hygienists assessed asbestos exposure separately for occupational, domestic and environmental sources. Classification of domestic and environmental exposure was based on a complete residential history, presence and use of asbestos at home, asbestos industrial activities in the surrounding area, and their distance from the dwelling. In 53 cases and 232 controls without evidence of occupational exposure to asbestos, moderate or high probability of domestic exposure was associated with an increased risk adjusted by age and sex: odds ratio (OR) 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–13.1. This corresponds to three situations: cleaning asbestos-contaminated clothes, handling asbestos material and presence of asbestos material susceptible to damage. The estimated OR for high probability of environmental exposure (living within 2000 m of asbestos mines, asbestos cement plants, asbestos textiles, shipyards, or brakes factories) was 11.5 (95% CI 3.5–38.2). Living between 2000 and 5000 m from asbestos industries or within 500 m of industries using asbestos could also be associated with an increased risk. A dose–response pattern appeared with intensity of both sources of exposure. It is suggested that low-dose exposure to asbestos at home or in the general environment carries a measurable risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
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              The health impact of nonoccupational exposure to asbestos: what do we know?

              The objective of this study was to examine the epidemiological data that confirm the risks of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and other respiratory damage associated with nonoccupational exposure to asbestos, in circumstances where exposure levels are usually lower than those found in the workplace: domestic and paraoccupational exposure to asbestos-containing material among people living with asbestos workers or near asbestos mines and manufacturing plants, environmental exposure from naturally occurring asbestos in soil, and nonoccupational exposure to asbestos-containing material in buildings. Studies concerning natural asbestos in the environment show that the exposure that begins at birth does not seem to affect the duration of the latency period, but the studies do not show whether early exposure increases susceptibility; they do not suggest that susceptibility differs according to sex. Solid evidence shows an increased risk of mesothelioma among people whose exposure comes from a paraoccupational or domestic source. The risk of mesothelioma associated with exposure as result of living near an industrial asbestos source (mines, mills, asbestos processing plants) is clearly confirmed. No solid epidemiological data currently justify any judgment about the health effects associated with passive exposure in buildings containing asbestos. Most of the studies on nonoccupational sources reported mainly amphibole exposure, but it cannot be ruled out that environmental exposure to chrysotile may also cause cancer. Nonoccupational exposure to asbestos may explain approximately 20% of the mesotheliomas in industrialized countries, but it is does not seem possible to estimate the number of lung cancers caused by these circumstances of exposure.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                aiss
                Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
                Ann. Ist. Super. Sanità
                Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Roma )
                0021-2571
                December 2014
                : 50
                : 4
                : 322-327
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Istituto Superiore di Sanità Italy
                [2 ] Seconda Università di Napoli Italy
                [3 ] Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Italy
                Article
                S0021-25712014000400005
                10.4415/ANN_14_04_05
                baf9eefe-89d0-4be6-abae-1055b2a5cf3a

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Public Health

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0021-2571&lng=en
                Categories
                Health Care Sciences & Services

                Health & Social care
                mesothelioma,incidence,asbestos,contaminated site,environmental exposure
                Health & Social care
                mesothelioma, incidence, asbestos, contaminated site, environmental exposure

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