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      Cleavage of Fibulin-2 by the aggrecanases ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 contributes to the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells

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          Abstract

          Fibulin-2 participates in the assembly of extracellular matrix components through interactions with multiple ligands and promotes contacts between cells and their surrounding environment. Consequently, identification of processes that could lead to an altered Fibulin-2 could have a major impact not only in the maintenance of tissue architecture and morphogenesis but also in pathological situations including cancer. Herein, we have investigated the ability of the secreted metalloproteases ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 to digest Fibulin-2. Using in vitro approaches and cultured breast cancer cell lines we demonstrate that Fibulin-2 is a better substrate for ADAMTS-5 than it is for ADAMTS-4. Moreover, Fibulin-2 degradation is associated to an enhancement of the invasive potential of T47D, MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells. We have also found that conditioned medium from MCF-7 cells that simultaneously overexpress Fibulin-2 and ADAMTS-5 significantly induced the migratory and invasive ability of normal breast fibroblasts using 3D collagen matrices. Immunohistochemical analysis highlights the close proximity or partial overlap of both Fibulin-2 and ADAMTS-5 in breast tumor samples. Additionally, proteolytic products derived from a potential degradation of Fibulin-2 by ADAMTS-5 were also identified in these samples. Finally, we also show that the cleavage of Fibulin-2 by ADAMTS-5 is counteracted by ADAMTS-12, a metalloprotease that interacts with Fibulin-2. Overall, our results provide direct evidence indicating that Fibulin-2 is a novel substrate of ADAMTS-5 and that this proteolysis could alter the cellular microenvironment affecting the balance between protumor and antitumor effects associated to both Fibulin-2 and the ADAMTSs metalloproteases.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Cancer-associated fibroblasts induce epithelial–mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells through paracrine TGF-β signalling

           Y Yu,  C-H Xiao,  L-D Tan (2013)
          Background: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) activated by tumour cells are the predominant type of stromal cells in breast cancer tissue. The reciprocal effect of CAFs on breast cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully characterised. Methods: Stromal fibroblasts were isolated from invasive breast cancer tissues and the conditioned medium of cultured CAFs (CAF-CM) was collected to culture the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-231. Neutralising antibody and small-molecule inhibitor were used to block the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling derived from CAF-CM, which effect on breast cancer cells. Results: The stromal fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer tissues showed CAF characteristics with high expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin and SDF1/CXCL12. The CAF-CM transformed breast cancer cell lines into more aggressive phenotypes, including enhanced cell–extracellular matrix adhesion, migration and invasion, and promoted epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cancer-associated fibroblasts secreted more TGF-β1 than TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, and activated the TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway in breast cancer cells. The EMT phenotype of breast cancer cells induced by CAF-CM was reversed by blocking TGF-β1 signalling. Conclusion: Cancer-associated fibroblasts promoted aggressive phenotypes of breast cancer cells through EMT induced by paracrine TGF-β1. This might be a common mechanism for acquiring metastatic potential in breast cancer cells with different biological characteristics.
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            Isotopic labeling of terminal amines in complex samples identifies protein N-termini and protease cleavage products.

            Effective proteome-wide strategies that distinguish the N-termini of proteins from the N-termini of their protease cleavage products would accelerate identification of the substrates of proteases with broad or unknown specificity. Our approach, named terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS), addresses this challenge by using dendritic polyglycerol aldehyde polymers that remove tryptic and C-terminal peptides. We analyze unbound naturally acetylated, cyclized or labeled N-termini from proteins and their protease cleavage products by tandem mass spectrometry, and use peptide isotope quantification to discriminate between the substrates of the protease of interest and the products of background proteolysis. We identify 731 acetylated and 132 cyclized N-termini, and 288 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 cleavage sites in mouse fibroblast secretomes. We further demonstrate the potential of our strategy to link proteases with defined biological pathways in complex samples by analyzing mouse inflammatory bronchoalveolar fluid and showing that expression of the poorly defined breast cancer protease MMP-11 in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells cleaves both endoplasmin and the immunomodulator and apoptosis inducer galectin-1.
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              ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5: key enzymes in osteoarthritis.

              Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive disease of the joints characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. Although disease initiation may be multi-factorial, the cartilage destruction appears to be a result of uncontrolled proteolytic extracellular matrix destruction. A major component of the cartilage extracellular matrix is aggrecan, a proteoglycan that imparts compressive resistance to the tissue. Aggrecanase-mediated aggrecan degradation is a significant event in early stage OA. The relative contribution of individual ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 proteinases to cartilage destruction during OA has not been resolved completely. This review reveals that both ADAMTS-4/ADAMTS-5 are responsible for aggrecan degradation in a human model of OA, and is expected to list down the rational strategies which are being focussed for therapeutic intervention in OA. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                21 February 2017
                11 January 2017
                : 8
                : 8
                : 13716-13729
                Affiliations
                1 Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias Spain
                2 Instituto Universitario de Oncología, IUOPA, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
                3 Department of Morphology and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
                4 Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias, and CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain
                5 Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile
                6 Unidad de Trasplantes, Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain
                7 Departamento de Biología Funcional, Area de Fisiología, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
                8 Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Santiago Cal, santical@ 123456uniovi.es
                Article
                14627
                10.18632/oncotarget.14627
                5355132
                28099917
                Copyright: © 2017 Fontanil et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Paper

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                extracellular matrix, aggrecanases, adamts, metalloproteases, fibulin

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