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      Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) pigmented fraction suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in chemical and biological model systems.

      Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
      Anthocyanins, isolation & purification, pharmacology, Antioxidants, DNA Damage, drug effects, Humans, Lipid Peroxidation, Nitric Oxide, antagonists & inhibitors, metabolism, Oryza sativa, chemistry, Pigments, Biological, Reactive Oxygen Species

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          Anthocyanins, present in fruits and vegetables as natural colorants, have been well characterized to possess bioactive properties. Anthocyanin components extracted from black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) separated by gel filtration and identified using LC-MS were cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside. A standardized extract of black rice pigmented fraction (BRE) containing known proportions of cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside exhibited marked antioxidant activities and free radical scavenging capacities in a battery of in vitro model systems. Significant (p < 0.05) prevention of supercoiled DNA strand scission induced by reactive oxygen species (specifically, peroxyl radical and hydroxyl radicals) and suppression of the oxidative modification of human low-density lipoprotein was obtained with BRE. In addition, BRE reduced (p < 0.05) the formation of nitric oxide by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, without introducing cell toxicity. The results of this study show that black rice contains anthocyanin pigments with notable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties for potential use in nutraceutical or functional food formulations.

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