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      Tissue-resident memory T cells: local specialists in immune defence

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      Nature Reviews Immunology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          T cells have crucial roles in protection against infection and cancer. Although the trafficking of memory T cells around the body is integral to their capacity to provide immune protection, studies have shown that specialization of some memory T cells into unique tissue-resident subsets gives the host enhanced regional immunity. In recent years, there has been considerable progress in our understanding of tissue-resident T cell development and function, revealing mechanisms for enhanced protective immunity that have the potential to influence rational vaccine design. This Review discusses the major advances and the emerging concepts in this field, summarizes what is known about the differentiation and the protective functions of tissue-resident memory T cells in different tissues in the body and highlights key unanswered questions.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Lineage relationship and protective immunity of memory CD8 T cell subsets.

          Memory CD8 T cells can be divided into two subsets, central (T(CM)) and effector (T(EM)), but their lineage relationships and their ability to persist and confer protective immunity are not well understood. Our results show that T(CM) have a greater capacity than T(EM) to persist in vivo and are more efficient in mediating protective immunity because of their increased proliferative potential. We also demonstrate that, following antigen clearance, T(EM) convert to T(CM) and that the duration of this differentiation is programmed within the first week after immunization. We propose that T(CM) and T(EM) do not necessarily represent distinct subsets, but are part of a continuum in a linear naive --> effector --> T(EM) --> T(CM) differentiation pathway.
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            Cutting edge: Tissue-retentive lung memory CD4 T cells mediate optimal protection to respiratory virus infection.

            We identify in this article a new class of lung tissue-resident memory CD4 T cells that exhibit tissue tropism and retention independent of Ag or inflammation. Tissue-resident memory CD4 T cells in the lung did not circulate or emigrate from the lung in parabiosis experiments, were protected from in vivo Ab labeling, and expressed elevated levels of CD69 and CD11a compared with those of circulating memory populations. Importantly, influenza-specific lung-resident memory CD4 T cells served as in situ protectors to respiratory viral challenge, mediating enhanced viral clearance and survival to lethal influenza infection. By contrast, memory CD4 T cells isolated from spleen recirculated among multiple tissues without retention and failed to mediate protection to influenza infection, despite their ability to expand and migrate to the lung. Our results reveal tissue compartmentalization as a major determining factor for immune-mediated protection in a key mucosal site, important for targeting local protective responses in vaccines and immunotherapies.
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              Effector-memory T cell responses are associated with protection of rhesus monkeys from mucosal SIV challenge

              The rapid onset of massive, systemic viral replication during primary HIV/SIV infection and the immune evasion capabilities of these viruses pose fundamental problems for vaccines that depend upon initial viral replication to stimulate effector T cell expansion and differentiation1–5. We hypothesized that vaccines designed to maintain differentiated “effector memory” T cell (TEM) responses5,6 at viral entry sites might improve efficacy by impairing viral replication at its earliest stage2, and have therefore developed SIV protein-encoding vectors based on rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), the prototypical inducer of life-long TEM responses7–9. RhCMV vectors expressing SIV Gag, Rev/Nef/Tat, and Env persistently infected rhesus macaques (RM), regardless of pre-existing RhCMV immunity, and primed and maintained robust SIV-specific, CD4+ and CD8+ TEM responses (characterized by coordinate TNF, IFN-γ and MIP-1β expression, cytotoxic degranulation, and accumulation at extra-lymphoid sites) in the absence of neutralizing antibodies. Compared to control RM, these vaccinated RM showed increased resistance to acquisition of progressive SIVmac239 infection upon repeated, limiting dose, intra-rectal challenge, including four animals that controlled rectal mucosal infection without progressive systemic dissemination. These data suggest a new paradigm for AIDS vaccine development: that vaccines capable of generating and maintaining HIV-specific TEM might decrease the incidence of HIV acquisition after sexual exposure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Immunology
                Nat Rev Immunol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1474-1733
                1474-1741
                February 2016
                December 21 2015
                February 2016
                : 16
                : 2
                : 79-89
                Article
                10.1038/nri.2015.3
                26688350
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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