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Chemokines facilitate leukocyte migration and positioning as well as other processes
such as angiogenesis and leukocyte degranulation. The burgeoning knowledge on chemokines
and their receptors has influenced many aspects of immunology, in part because cell
migration is intimately related to leukocyte function. This overview assesses the
impact that chemokines have had on our understanding of immunology and infectious
diseases. These include the role of chemokines in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions;
dendritic cell function; T cell differentiation and function; inflammatory diseases;
mucosal and subcutaneous immunity; and subversion of immune responses by viruses,
including HIV-1. This knowledge heralds new opportunities for the manipulation of
immune responses and the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies. It has also
provided a new perspective on the functioning of the immune system.