To study the thrombolytic effect and safety of cRGD urokinase liposomes (cRGD-UK-LIP) in rats with acute pulmonary microthromboembolism (APMTE), and explore the application value of echocardiography (ECHO) in animal models.
Ninety-six SD rats were randomized into 6 groups (16/group): normal control, sham operation, APMTE, normal saline (NS), free urokinase (UK), cRGD-UK-LIP. Four groups (APMTE, NS, UK, cRGD-UK-LIP) of rats were injected with autologous thrombus to induce APMTE. Samples were injected into 3 groups (NS, UK, cRGD-UK-LIP) of rats after modeling. Echocardiography was used to assess right ventricle (RV) function and morphology in rats. Six rats in each group were randomly selected and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of them was measured through ECHO-guided transthoracic puncture. Finally, the rats were killed and their tissues were taken for pathological examination.
Compared with normal control or sham operation group, rats in APMTE group had enlarged RV, decreased RV function, increased PAP, and lung tissue of them showed postthromboembolic appearance. There was no significant difference between NS group and APMTE group. RV morphology and function of rats in the UK group and cRGD-UK-LIP group were better and vessels with residual thrombus in these 2 groups were less than APMTE group, especially in the cRGD-UK-LIP group. In terms of PAP, only cRGD-UK-LIP group was significantly lower than APMTE group. No hyperemia, bleeding and swelling were observed in heart, liver and kidney of rats in each group.
A rat model of APMTE was successfully established. cRGD-UK-LIP has better thrombolytic effect than free urokinase and it is safe. Echocardiography is not merely an important way to evaluate the morphology and function of RV, transthoracic puncture measurement under the guidance of it can be an effective way to monitor PAP in animal models.