29 March 2006
Background: Testis enlargement in McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is generally bilateral and associated with clinical and biochemical manifestations of sexual precocity. Case Report: We describe for the first time an unreported clinical expression of MAS in a 4.6-year-old boy presenting with monolateral testis enlargement and no signs of sexual precocity or other clinical manifestations of MAS at the time of presenting with macroorchidism. Both testosterone and LHRH-stimulated gonadotropin levels were in the prepubertal range. Serum inhibin B was increased to a pubertal level indicating Sertoli cell activation. The histological and immunocytochemical evaluation of the enlarged testis revealed Sertoli cell hyperplasia with no mature Leydig cells. Mutation R201C of GNAS1 gene, classically responsible for MAS, was identified in DNA samples from the right testis biopsy and leukocytes. Conclusions: (a) MAS should be taken into consideration in the clinicopathological approach to a boy with monolateral macroorchidism; (b) testicular enlargement may be only the presenting clinical manifestation of MAS and is not necessarily linked to manifestations of peripheral precocious puberty; (c) testicular autonomous hyperfunction in MAS may be restricted to Sertoli cells, as also demonstrated previously by others.