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      McCune-Albright Syndrome in a Boy May Present with a Monolateral Macroorchidism as an Early and Isolated Clinical Manifestation

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          Background: Testis enlargement in McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is generally bilateral and associated with clinical and biochemical manifestations of sexual precocity. Case Report: We describe for the first time an unreported clinical expression of MAS in a 4.6-year-old boy presenting with monolateral testis enlargement and no signs of sexual precocity or other clinical manifestations of MAS at the time of presenting with macroorchidism. Both testosterone and LHRH-stimulated gonadotropin levels were in the prepubertal range. Serum inhibin B was increased to a pubertal level indicating Sertoli cell activation. The histological and immunocytochemical evaluation of the enlarged testis revealed Sertoli cell hyperplasia with no mature Leydig cells. Mutation R201C of GNAS1 gene, classically responsible for MAS, was identified in DNA samples from the right testis biopsy and leukocytes. Conclusions: (a) MAS should be taken into consideration in the clinicopathological approach to a boy with monolateral macroorchidism; (b) testicular enlargement may be only the presenting clinical manifestation of MAS and is not necessarily linked to manifestations of peripheral precocious puberty; (c) testicular autonomous hyperfunction in MAS may be restricted to Sertoli cells, as also demonstrated previously by others.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Syndrome Characterized by Osteitis Fibrosa Disseminata, Areas of Pigmentation and Endocrine Dysfunction, with Precocious Puberty in Females

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            Severe endocrine and nonendocrine manifestations of the McCune-Albright syndrome associated with activating mutations of stimulatory G protein GS.

            McCune-Albright syndrome (MCAS) is a sporadic disease classically including polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, café au lait spots, sexual precocity, and other hyperfunctional endocrinopathies. An activating missense mutation in the gene for the alpha subunit of GS, the G protein that stimulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation, has been reported to be present in these patients. The mutation is found in variable abundance in different affected endocrine and nonendocrine tissues, consistent with the mosaic distribution of abnormal cells generated by a somatic cell mutation early in embryogenesis. We describe three patients with MCAS who had profound endocrine and nonendocrine disease and who died in childhood. Two of the patients were severely ill neonates whose complex symptoms did not immediately suggest MCAS. A mutation of residue Arg201 of GS alpha was found in affected tissues from all three children. A review of the literature and unpublished case histories emphasizes the existence of other patients with severe and unusual clinical manifestations. We conclude that the manifestations of MCAS are more extensive than is generally appreciated, and may include hepatobiliary disease, cardiac disease, other nonendocrine abnormalities, and sudden or premature death.
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              Clinical implications of genetic defects in G proteins. The molecular basis of McCune-Albright syndrome and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy.

              Inactivating and activating mutations in the gene encoding G alpha s (GNAS1) are known to be the basis for 2 well-described contrasting clinical disorders, Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) and McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). AHO is an autosomal dominant disorder due to germline mutations in GNAS1 that decrease expression or function of G alpha s protein. Loss of G alpha s function leads to tissue resistance to multiple hormones whose receptors couple to G alpha s. By contrast, MAS results from postzygotic somatic mutations in GNAS1 that lead to enhanced function of G alpha s protein. Acquisition of the activating mutation early in life leads to a more generalized distribution of the mosaicism and is associated with the classic clinical triad of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, endocrine hyperfunction, and café au lait skin lesions described in MAS. Acquisition of a similar activating mutation in GNAS1 later in life presumably accounts for the restricted distribution of the gsp oncogene, and is associated with the development of isolated lesions (for example, fibrous dysplasia, pituitary or thyroid tumors) without other manifestations of MAS. Tissues that are affected by loss of G alpha s function in AHO are also affected by gain of G alpha s function in MAS, thus identifying specific tissues in which the second messenger cAMP plays a dominant role in cell growth, proliferation, or function. Further investigations of the functions of G alpha s and other members of the GTPase binding protein family will provide more insight into the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of human disease.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                March 2006
                29 March 2006
                : 65
                : 3
                : 114-119
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Messina, Messina, bDepartment of Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna, and cDepartment of Pediatric Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
                91279 Horm Res 2006;65:114–119
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 24, Pages: 6
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