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      Trace Elements in End-Stage Renal Disease

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          Abstract

          For human beings trace elements are essential nutrients with a gamut of functions. They are for instance indispensable components of many enzymes, so they have some regulatory functions and they may affect immune reactions and free radical generation. Altered blood levels of different trace elements have been described in patients with advanced renal failure and especially in those treated by different kinds of renal replacement therapy. Altered renal function may result in impaired renal excretion of trace elements and their accumulation or depletion in the body. The dialysate concentrate and water used for preparing the dialysate may be an important source of the accumulation or depletion of trace elements in dialyzed patients. The gain or loss of trace elements during dialysis depends on the gradient between the ultrafiltrable fraction of a particular element in serum and its concentration in the dialysis fluid, and also on the type and permeability of the dialysis membrane. There are some methodological problems concerning the handling and storing of blood samples and measurement techniques leading to the rather inconsistent results of different studies concerning trace elements in renal disease. Geographical variations and environmental contamination of soil and water and different dietary habits may significantly influence trace elements in these patients. The abnormalities of trace elements are primarily the result of uremia, and they may be further modified and sometimes greatly exacerbated by the dialysis procedure.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Normal levels of trace elements in human blood plasma or serum

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            Analysis of serum elements and the contaminations from devices used for serum preparation by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

             H Morita,  T Kita,  M Umeno (1994)
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              BPU
              Blood Purif
              10.1159/issn.0253-5068
              Blood Purification
              S. Karger AG
              0253-5068
              1421-9735
              1999
              1999
              06 September 1999
              : 17
              : 4
              : 182-186
              Affiliations
              aInstitute of Clinical Chemistry, b1st Department of Medicine, and c2nd Department of Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, and dDepartment of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic
              Article
              14394 Blood Purif 1999;17:182–186
              10.1159/000014394
              10494020
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Tables: 3, References: 19, Pages: 5
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/14394
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