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      The prevalence of probable neuropathic pain in the US: results from a multimodal general-population health survey

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          Abstract

          Background

          The prevalence of neuropathic pain (NeP) has been estimated within specific health conditions; however, there are no published data on its broad prevalence in the US. The current exploratory study addresses this gap using the validated PainDetect questionnaire as a screener for probable NeP in a general-population health survey conducted with a multimodal recruitment strategy to maximize demographic representativeness.

          Materials and methods

          Adult respondents were recruited from a combination of Internet panels, telephone lists, address lists, mall-based interviews, and store-receipt invitations using a random stratified-sampling framework, with strata defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Older persons and minorities were oversampled to improve prevalence estimates. Results were weighted to match the total adult US population using US Census data. Demographic information was collected, and respondents who experienced physical pain in the past 12 months completed the PainDetect and provided additional pain history. A cutoff score of 19 or greater on the PainDetect was used to define probable NeP.

          Results

          A total of 24,925 respondents (average response rate 2.5%) provided demographic data (52.2% female, mean age 51.5 years); 15,751 respondents reported pain (63.7%), of which 2,548 (15.7%, 95% confidence interval 14.9%–16.5%) had probable NeP based on the PainDetect, which was 10% (95% confidence interval 9.5%–10.5%) of all respondents. Among those reporting pain, the prevalence of probable NeP among Blacks and Hispanics was consistently higher than Whites in each age- and sex group. The highest prevalence among those with pain was among male Hispanics 35–44 years (32.4%) and 45–54 years (24.2%) old. The most commonly used medications reported by those with probable NeP were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (44.2%), followed by weak opioids (31.7%), antiepileptics (10.9%), and strong opioids (10.9%).

          Conclusion

          This is the first study to provide an estimate of the prevalence of probable NeP in the US, showing significant variation by age and ethnicity.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Racial and ethnic disparities in pain: causes and consequences of unequal care.

          The purpose of our review is to evaluate critically the recent literature on racial and ethnic disparities in pain and to determine how far we have come toward reducing and eliminating disparities in pain. We examined peer-reviewed research articles published between 1990 and early 2009 that focused on racial and ethnic disparities in pain in the United States. The databases used were PubMed, Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycInfo. The probable causes of minority group disparities in pain are discussed, along with suggested strategies for eliminating pain-related disparities. This review reveals the persistence of racial and ethnic disparities in acute, chronic, cancer, and palliative pain care across the lifespan and treatment settings, with minorities receiving lesser quality pain care than non-Hispanic whites. Although health and health care disparities attract local, state, and federal attention, disparities in pain care continue to be missing from publicized public health agendas and health care reform plans. Ensuring optimal pain care for all is critically important from a public health and policy perspective. A robust research program on disparities in pain is needed, and the results must be successfully translated into practices and policies specifically designed to reduce and eliminate disparities in care. This review evaluates the recent literature on racial and ethnic disparities in pain and pain treatment. Racial and ethnic disparities in acute pain, chronic cancer pain, and palliative pain care continue to persist. Rigorous research is needed to develop interventions, practices, and policies for eliminating disparities in pain.
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            Neuropathic pain: quality-of-life impact, costs and cost effectiveness of therapy.

            A number of different diseases or injuries can damage the central or peripheral nervous system and produce neuropathic pain (NP), which seems to be more difficult to treat than many other types of chronic pain. As a group, patients with NP have greater medical co-morbidity burden than age- and sex-adjusted controls, which makes determining the humanistic and economic burden attributable to NP challenging. Health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) is substantially impaired among patients with NP. Patients describe pain-related interference in multiple HR-QOL and functional domains, as well as reduced ability to work and reduced mobility due to their pain. In addition, the spouses of NP patients have been shown to experience adverse social consequences related to NP. In randomized controlled trials, several medications have been shown to improve various measures of HR-QOL. Changes in HR-QOL appear to be tightly linked to pain relief, but not to the development of adverse effects. However, in cross-sectional studies, many patients continue to have moderate or severe pain and markedly impaired HR-QOL, despite taking medications prescribed for NP. The quality of NP treatment appears to be poor, with few patients receiving recommended medications in efficacious dosages. The substantial costs to society of NP derive from direct medical costs, loss of the ability to work, loss of caregivers' ability to work and possibly greater need for institutionalization or other living assistance. No single study has measured all of these costs to society for chronic NP. The cost effectiveness of various interventions for the treatment or prevention of different types of NP has been assessed in several different studies. The most-studied diseases are post-herpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy, for which tricyclic antidepressants (both amitriptyline and desipramine) have been found to be either cost effective or dominant relative to other strategies. Increasing the use of cost-effective therapies such as tricyclic antidepressants for post-herpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy may improve the HR-QOL of patients and decrease societal costs. Head-to-head clinical trials comparing NP therapies are needed to help assess the relative clinical efficacy of treatments, ideally using HR-QOL and utility outcomes. The full costs to society of NP, including productivity loss costs, have not been determined for chronic NP. Improved relative efficacy, utility and cost estimates would facilitate future cost-effectiveness research in NP.
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              Epidemiology and impact on quality of life of postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy.

              This article reviews the prevalence, risk factors, natural history, and impact on quality of life of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Diabetes mellitus afflicts more than 14 million persons in the U.S. An estimated 20% to 24% of these persons experience PDN. Data on risk factors for PDN are limited, but duration of diabetes mellitus and poor glycemic control are probably important factors. Painful diabetic neuropathy may interfere with general activity, mood, mobility, work, social relations, sleep, leisure activities, and enjoyment of life. Herpes zoster strikes an estimated 800,000 persons each year in the U.S., most of whom are elderly or immunosuppressed. Using pain at 3 months after rash onset as a definition of PHN, between 25% and 50% of adults older than 50 years develop PHN, depending on early antiviral therapy for herpes zoster. Increasing age, greater pain and rash severity, greater degree of sensory impairment, and psychological distress are risk factors for PHN. Postherpetic neuralgia may cause fatigue, insomnia, depression, anxiety, interference with social roles and leisure activity, and impaired basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Both conditions are common complications of their underlying disorders and can profoundly diminish the quality of life of affected persons.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2017
                01 November 2017
                : 10
                : 2525-2538
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health
                [2 ]Pfizer Inc, New York, NY
                [3 ]Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT
                [4 ]University of Washington, Seattle, WA
                [5 ]University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY
                [6 ]University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, US
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ian Kudel, Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, 12th floor, 11 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10010, US, Tel +1 212 706 4273, Email ian.kudel@ 123456kantarhealth.com
                Article
                jpr-10-2525
                10.2147/JPR.S127014
                5677393
                © 2017 DiBonaventura et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                epidemiology, neuropathic pain, prevalence, pain types

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