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Body Mass Index Changes during Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes - A Cross-Sectional Study Translated title: Mudanças do índice de massa corporal na gravidez e resultados perinatais - um estudo transversal

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      Abstract

      Abstract Objective To evaluate the relation between changes the body mass index (BMI) percentile, reflected in the Atalah curve, and perinatal outcomes. Methods A cross-sectional study with 1,279 women was performed. Data regarding gestational weight, sociodemographic characteristics and perinatal outcomes were collected through medical charts, prenatal card and interviews in the postpartum period. Women could be classified according to the Atalah curve in the following categories: low weight, adequateweight, overweight, and obese. The BMIwas calculated at the first and at the last prenatal care visits, and these values were compared. Results An increase in the BMI category according to the Atalah classification occurred in 19.9% of pregnant women, and an increase of 3.4, 5.8 and 6.4 points of BMI were found for women respectively classified in the adequate weight, overweight and obese categories at the first prenatal visit. Women with high school education presented a lower chance of increasing their BMI (odds ratio [OR] 0:47 [0.24- 0.95]). Women who evolved with an increase in the the Atalah classification were associated with cesarean section (OR 1.97-2.28), fetalmacrosomia (OR 4.13-12.54) and large for gestational age newborn (OR 2.88-9.83). Conclusion Pregnant women who gained enough weight to move up in their BMI classification according to the Atalah curve had a higher chance of cesarean section and macrosomia. Women classified as obese, according to the Atalah curve, at the first prenatal visit had a high chance of cesarean section and delivering a large for gestational age newborn.

      Translated abstract

      Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a relação entre mudanças no percentual do índice de massa corporal (IMC), refletidas na curva de Atalah, e resultados perinatais. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 1.279 mulheres. Os dados sobre o peso na gestação, características sociodemográficas e resultados perinatais foram coletados através de prontuários, cartão pré-natal e entrevistas no pós-parto. As mulheres foramclassificadas de acordo coma curva de Atalah nas seguintes categorias: baixo peso, peso adequado, sobrepeso e obesidade. O IMC foi calculado na primeira e na última visita ao pré-natal e esses valores foram comparados. Resultados Houve aumento na categoria do IMC segundo a classificação de Atalah em 19,9% das mulheres grávidas e um aumento de 3,4; 5,8 e 6,4 pontos do IMC foram encontrados para mulheres respectivamente classificadas nas categorias peso adequado, sobrepeso e obesidade na primeira consulta pré-natal. As mulheres com educação secundária apresentaram menor chance de aumentar sua classificação de IMC (odds ratio [OR] 0:47 [0,24- 0,95]). As mulheres que evoluíram com o aumento na classificação de Atalah foramassociadas a cesariana (OR 1,97-2,28),macrossomia fetal (OR 4,13-12,54) e recém-nascido grande para a idade gestacional (OR 2,88-9,83). Conclusão Gestantes com ganho de peso excessivo, o suficiente para aumentar sua classificação do IMC segundo a curva de Atalah, tiverammaiores chances de cesariana e macrossomia. As mulheres classificadas como obesas na primeira visita pré-natal, de acordo com a curva de Atalah, tiveram uma grande chance de cesariana e recémnascido grande para a idade gestacional.

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      The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

      Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.
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        The short- and long-term implications of maternal obesity on the mother and her offspring.

        Obesity's increasing prevalence has reached epidemic proportions in the USA, with close to one-third of the adult population affected in 2000. Additionally, there is increasing prevalence of obesity in other industrialised areas of the world such as Europe. Of potentially more concern is the potential risks associated with obesity and related metabolic complications in the developing world. The maternal, fetal, peripartum and neonatal complications of obesity in pregnancy have far-reaching implications for both mother and offspring. Of alarming interest is the increasing rate of obesity among adolescents and the cycle of obesity in future generations it portends. The purpose in this review is to briefly review the maternal perinatal morbidities associated with maternal pregravid obesity. Additionally, we will review evidence of both short- and long-term effect of maternal obesity on the in utero environment as it relates to fetal growth, neonatal body composition and adolescent obesity.
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          Interpregnancy weight change and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a population-based study.

          Maternal obesity has been positively associated with risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but evidence of a causal relation is scarce. Causality would be lent support if temporal changes in weight affected risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We examined the associations between change in prepregnancy body-mass index (BMI) from the first to the second pregnancies, and the risk of adverse outcomes during the second pregnancy in a nationwide Swedish study of 151 025 women who had their first two consecutive singleton births between 1992 and 2001. Compared with women whose BMI changed between -1.0 and 0.9 units, the adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes for those who gained 3 or more units during an average 2 years were: pre-eclampsia, 1.78 (95% CI 1.52-2.08); gestational hypertension 1.76 (1.39-2.23); gestational diabetes 2.09 (1.68-2.61); caesarean delivery 1.32 (1.22-1.44); stillbirth 1.63 (1.20-2.21); and large-for-gestational-age birth 1.87 (1.72-2.04). The associations were linearly related to the amount of weight change and were also noted in women who had a healthy prepregnancy BMI for both pregnancies. These findings lend support to a causal relation between being overweight or obese and risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Additionally they suggest that modest increases in BMI before pregnancy could result in perinatal complications, even if a woman does not become overweight. Our results provide robust epidemiological evidence for advocating weight loss in overweight and obese women who are planning to become pregnant and, to prevent weight gain before pregnancy in women with healthy BMIs.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Fortaleza Ceará orgnameUniversidade Federal do Ceará Brazil
            Campinas São Paulo orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Campinas Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rbgo
            Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
            Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet.
            Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
            0100-7203
            1806-9339
            January 2018
            : 40
            : 1
            : 11-19
            S0100-72032018000100011
            10.1055/s-0037-1608885

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 9
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            Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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