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      Serum sodium disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury

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          Sodium disorders are the most common and most poorly understood electrolyte disorders in neurological patients. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of sodium disorders and its association with different traumatic brain injuries. This prospective study was conducted in 80 patients diagnosed with moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries. All patients underwent cerebral computed tomography. Incidence of sodium disorders, presence of injuries in the first computed tomography after traumatic brain injury, and level of consciousness were analyzed. Patients that presented other potential causes of sodium disorders and systemic trauma were excluded from the study. The incidence of sodium disturbances was 45%: 20 patients presented hypernatremia and 16 hyponatremia. Refers to all patients with sodium disturbances 53% were detected in the first sample. We recorded at least one measurement <125 mEq/L in 50% of the patients with hyponatremia. A greater incidence of sodium disorders was found in patients with subdural, intracerebral hematoma and with diffuse axonal injury. The incidence of sodium disorders among the patients with diffuse lesions was greater than in the group of patients with brain contusion ( P = 0.022). The incidence of sodium disorders is higher in patients with diffuse traumatic brain injuries. No association was found between focal lesions and proportion of sodium disorders.

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          Brain natriuretic peptide as a novel cardiac hormone in humans. Evidence for an exquisite dual natriuretic peptide system, atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide.

           H Yasue,  M Mukoyama,  K Obata (1991)
          Using a specific radioimmunoassay for human brain natriuretic peptide (hBNP) with a monoclonal antibody, we have investigated its synthesis, secretion, and clearance in comparison with those of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Mean BNP-like immunoreactivity (-LI) levels in normal atrium and ventricle were 250 and 18 pmol/g, respectively. The plasma BNP-LI level in normal subjects was 0.90 +/- 0.07 fmol/ml, which was 16% of the ANP-LI level. In contrast, the plasma BNP-LI level markedly increased in patients with CHF in proportion to its severity, and surpassed the ANP-LI level in severe cases. There was a significant step-up of the plasma BNP-LI level in the coronary sinus (CS) compared with that in the aortic root (Ao) and the difference between these BNP-LI levels, delta(CS-Ao)BNP, also increased with the severity of CHF. In addition, the step-up of the BNP-LI level in the anterior interventricular vein [delta(AIV-Ao)BNP] was comparable to delta(CS-Ao)BNP, indicating that BNP is secreted mainly from the ventricle. Predominant BNP synthesis in the ventricle was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Catheterization and pharmacokinetic studies revealed that hBNP is cleared from the circulation more slowly than alpha-hANP; this was in part attributed to lower (about 7%) binding affinity of hBNP to clearance receptors than that of alpha-hANP. A predominant molecular form of BNP-LI in the heart and plasma was a 3-kD form corresponding to hBNP. These results indicate that BNP is a novel cardiac hormone secreted predominantly from the ventricle, and that the synthesis, secretion and clearance of BNP differ from those of ANP, suggesting discrete physiological and pathophysiological roles of BNP in a dual natriuretic peptide system.
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            A new natriuretic peptide in porcine brain.

            Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a hormone secreted from mammalian atria, regulates the homoeostatic balance of body fluid and blood pressure. ANP-like immunoreactivity is also present in the brain, suggesting that the peptide functions as a neuropeptide. We report here identification in porcine brain of a novel peptide of 26 amino-acid residues, eliciting a pharmacological spectrum very similar to that of ANP, such as natriuretic-diuretic, hypotensive and chick rectum relaxant activities. The complete amino-acid sequence determined for the peptide is remarkably similar to but definitely distinct from the known sequence of ANP, indicating that the genes for the two are distinct. Thus, we have designated the peptide 'brain natriuretic peptide' (BNP). The occurrence of BNP with ANP in mammalian brain suggests the possibility that the physiological functions so far thought to be mediated by ANP may be regulated through a dual mechanism involving both ANP and BNP.
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              Hyponatraemia and death or permanent brain damage in healthy children.

              To determine if hyponatraemia causes permanent brain damage in healthy children and, if so, if the disorder is primarily limited to females, as occurs in adults. Prospective clinical case study of 16 affected children and a review of 24,412 consecutive surgical admissions at one medical centre. 16 children (nine male, seven female; age 7 (SD 5) years) with generally minor illness were electively hospitalised for primary care. Consultation was obtained for the combination of respiratory arrest with symptomatic hyponatraemia (serum sodium concentration less than or equal to 128 mmol/l). Presence, gender distribution, and classification of permanent brain damage in children with symptomatic hyponatraemia in both prospective and retrospective studies. By retrospective evaluation the incidence of postoperative hyponatraemia among 24,412 patients was 0.34% (83 cases) and mortality of those afflicted was 8.4% (seven deaths). In the prospective population the serum sodium concentration on admission was 138 (SD 2) mmol/l. From three to 120 inpatient hours after hypotonic fluid administration patients developed progressive lethargy, headache, nausea, and emesis with an explosive onset of respiratory arrest. At the time serum sodium concentration was 115 (7) mmol/l and arterial oxygen tension 6 (1.5) kPa. The hyponatraemia was primarily caused by extrarenal loss of electrolytes with replacement by hypotonic fluids. All 16 patients had cerebral oedema detected at either radiological or postmortem examination. All 15 patients not treated for their hyponatraemia in a timely manner either died or were permanently incapacitated by brain damage. The only patient treated in a timely manner was alive but mentally retarded. Symptomatic hyponatraemia can result in high morbidity in children of both genders, which is due in large part to inadequate brain adaptation and lack of timely treatment.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                11 August 2011
                : 7
                : 345-349
                Intensive Care Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital Das Clinicas, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wellingson Paiva, University of São Paulo, Eneas Aguiar Street N 255 Office 4080, São Paulo, Brazil 05403010, Tel +55 11 30697226, Fax +55 11 25486906, Email wellingsonpaiva@ 123456yahoo.com.br
                © 2011 Paiva et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Short Report


                brain trauma, hypernatremia, hyponatremia


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