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Population-based human immunodeficiency virus 1 drug resistance profiles among individuals who experienced virological failure to first-line antiretroviral therapy in Henan, China during 2010–2011

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      Abstract

      BackgroundIn Henan, China, first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) was implemented early in a large number of treatment-experienced patients who were more likely to have a drug resistance. Therefore, we investigated the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 drug resistance profiles among patients in Henan who experienced virological failure to ART.MethodA cross-sectional survey was administered in 10 major epidemic cities from May 2010 to October 2011. Adult patients who experienced virological failure (virus load ≥1,000 copies/mL) with >1 year of first-line antiretroviral treatment consented to provide blood for genotype resistance testing. The clinical and demographic data were obtained from the patients’ medical records. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with ≥1 significant drug resistance mutation.ResultsWe included 3,235 patients with integral information and valid genotypic resistance data. The city, age, CD4 counts, virus load, treatment duration, and World Health Organization stage were associated with drug resistance, and 64.76% of patients acquired drug resistance. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-(N)NRTI, and protease inhibitor resistance mutations were found in 50.26, 63.12, and 1.30% of subjects, respectively. Thymidine analogue mutations, NNRTI and even multidrug resistance complex were quite common in this patient cohort.ConclusionMultiple and complex patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were identified among individuals who experienced virological failure to first-line ART in Henan, China during 2010–2011. Therefore, timely virological monitoring, therapy adjustments, and more varieties of drugs and individualized treatment should be immediately considered in this patient population.

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      Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy.

      Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative; 54% of the subjects were from Africa, and 50% of infected partners were men. HIV-1-infected subjects with CD4 counts between 350 and 550 cells per cubic millimeter were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive antiretroviral therapy either immediately (early therapy) or after a decline in the CD4 count or the onset of HIV-1-related symptoms (delayed therapy). The primary prevention end point was linked HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1-negative partners. The primary clinical end point was the earliest occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis, severe bacterial infection, a World Health Organization stage 4 event, or death. As of February 21, 2011, a total of 39 HIV-1 transmissions were observed (incidence rate, 1.2 per 100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 1.7); of these, 28 were virologically linked to the infected partner (incidence rate, 0.9 per 100 person-years, 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.3). Of the 28 linked transmissions, only 1 occurred in the early-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.27; P<0.001). Subjects receiving early therapy had fewer treatment end points (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.88; P=0.01). The early initiation of antiretroviral therapy reduced rates of sexual transmission of HIV-1 and clinical events, indicating both personal and public health benefits from such therapy. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 052 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00074581.).
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        Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies.

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        Combination antiretroviral therapy has led to significant increases in survival and quality of life, but at a population-level the effect on life expectancy is not well understood. Our objective was to compare changes in mortality and life expectancy among HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy. The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration is a multinational collaboration of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America. Patients were included in this analysis if they were aged 16 years or over and antiretroviral-naive when initiating combination therapy. We constructed abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies for individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996-99, 2000-02, and 2003-05, and stratified by sex, baseline CD4 cell count, and history of injecting drug use. The average number of years remaining to be lived by those treated with combination antiretroviral therapy at 20 and 35 years of age was estimated. Potential years of life lost from 20 to 64 years of age and crude mortality rates were also calculated. 18 587, 13 914, and 10 854 eligible patients initiated combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996-99, 2000-02, and 2003-05, respectively. 2056 (4.7%) deaths were observed during the study period, with crude mortality rates decreasing from 16.3 deaths per 1000 person-years in 1996-99 to 10.0 deaths per 1000 person-years in 2003-05. Potential years of life lost per 1000 person-years also decreased over the same time, from 366 to 189 years. Life expectancy at age 20 years increased from 36.1 (SE 0.6) years to 49.4 (0.5) years. Women had higher life expectancies than did men. Patients with presumed transmission via injecting drug use had lower life expectancies than did those from other transmission groups (32.6 [1.1] years vs 44.7 [0.3] years in 2003-05). Life expectancy was lower in patients with lower baseline CD4 cell counts than in those with higher baseline counts (32.4 [1.1] years for CD4 cell counts below 100 cells per muL vs 50.4 [0.4] years for counts of 200 cells per muL or more). Life expectancy in HIV-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy increased between 1996 and 2005, although there is considerable variability between subgroups of patients. The average number of years remaining to be lived at age 20 years was about two-thirds of that in the general population in these countries.
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          Increases in adult life expectancy in rural South Africa: valuing the scale-up of HIV treatment.

          The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is expected to raise adult life expectancy in populations with high HIV prevalence. Using data from a population cohort of over 101,000 individuals in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we measured changes in adult life expectancy for 2000-2011. In 2003, the year before ART became available in the public-sector health system, adult life expectancy was 49.2 years; by 2011, adult life expectancy had increased to 60.5 years--an 11.3-year gain. Based on standard monetary valuation of life, the survival benefits of ART far outweigh the costs of providing treatment in this community. These gains in adult life expectancy signify the social value of ART and have implications for the investment decisions of individuals, governments, and donors.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [ ]Henan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhengzhou, Henan China
            [ ]Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
            Contributors
            dhelix@163.com
            yasongwu5@163.com
            wenjie0924@126.com
            boboo2009@126.com
            sungq2002@163.com
            chunhua5167@sina.com
            tiansa@hncdc.com.cn
            sundy@hncdc.com.cn
            zhuq@hncdc.com.cn
            wangzhe@hncdc.com.cn
            Journal
            AIDS Res Ther
            AIDS Res Ther
            AIDS Research and Therapy
            BioMed Central (London )
            1742-6405
            27 June 2015
            27 June 2015
            2015
            : 12
            4483220
            62
            10.1186/s12981-015-0062-y
            © Liu et al. 2015

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/h) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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