Objectives: Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) can be difficult to distinguish from optic neuritis seen in multiple sclerosis (MS). About half of the LHON patients harbor a mutation at nucleotide (nt) 11778 in the mitochondrial (mt) DNA. In addition, mutations at nt-3460 and nt-14484 have been associated with LHON. An association of LHON and MS has been suspected for decades, and, recently, the LHON nt-11778 and nt-3460 mtDNA mutations have been found in several patients with MS or MS-like disease. We attempted to determine which MS patients should be evaluated further for LHON mutations. Methods: We screened 103 clinically definite MS patients (age range from 18 to 72 years, 27 men and 76 women) for the LHON nt-11778 and nt-3460 mtDNA mutations. Results: Neither mutation was identified in the patients. Conclusions: Our findings confirm previous reports which found that both LHON mutations are rare in unselected MS patients. The reports to date suggest that MS patients with peripapillary teleangiectasia typical of LHON, with relatives harboring LHON or with early severe bilateral optic neuropathy, particularly if female, should be further evaluated for LHON mutations.