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      Analysis of 2-Chloroacetophenone in air by multi-fiber solid-phase microextraction and fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

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          Summary

          2-Chloroacetophenone (CA) is widely used as tear gas by law-enforcement agents, and by civilians for personal protection. Crimes involving robbery and rape using tear gas sprays have recently increased. Experimental and in-field evaluations have been performed to validate use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a porous fiber for sampling and analysis of CA in air before analysis by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with a new device called a multi-fiber system. CA vapor was generated by use of a syringe pump in a dynamic system in which temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity were monitored. The theoretical sampling rate for time-weighted average and rapid-SPME were, furthermore, estimated by use of the Fuller-Schettler-Giddings diffusion coefficient and the theory of heat transfer, respectively, and were in accordance with experimental values. Concentrations of CA were analyzed in a military store containing tear gas canisters, to evaluate the risk. The results obtained in this field study showed values ranging from 0.206 to 2.46 mg m −3.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          1326
          121093
          Acta Chromatographica
          A Sponsored Open Access Journal on Chromatography
          Acta Chromatographica
          Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
          1233-2356
          2083-5736
          1 September 2009
          : 21
          : 3
          : 379-397
          Affiliations
          [ 1 ] Occupational Health Division, Department of Public Health, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 48, 50100, Florence, Italy
          [ 2 ] Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health, University of Bari, P.zza G. Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy
          [ 3 ] Organic Chemistry Department/ProtEra Srl (Spin Off of Magnetic Resonance Center), University of Florence, Via Lastruccia 13, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy
          [ 4 ] Chromline Srl, Via Anita Garibaldi 40, 59100, Prato, Italy
          Author notes
          Article
          3
          10.1556/AChrom.21.2009.3.3
          Categories
          Original Research Papers

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