1 September 2009
2-Chloroacetophenone (CA) is widely used as tear gas by law-enforcement agents, and by civilians for personal protection. Crimes involving robbery and rape using tear gas sprays have recently increased. Experimental and in-field evaluations have been performed to validate use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a porous fiber for sampling and analysis of CA in air before analysis by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry equipped with a new device called a multi-fiber system. CA vapor was generated by use of a syringe pump in a dynamic system in which temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity were monitored. The theoretical sampling rate for time-weighted average and rapid-SPME were, furthermore, estimated by use of the Fuller-Schettler-Giddings diffusion coefficient and the theory of heat transfer, respectively, and were in accordance with experimental values. Concentrations of CA were analyzed in a military store containing tear gas canisters, to evaluate the risk. The results obtained in this field study showed values ranging from 0.206 to 2.46 mg m −3.