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      Antifungal susceptibility and virulence of Candida parapsilosis species complex: an overview of their pathogenic potential

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          Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. to replace Candida parapsilosis groups II and III.

          Two new species, Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, are proposed to replace the existing designations of C. parapsilosis groups II and III, respectively. The species C. parapsilosis is retained for group I isolates. Attempts to construct a multilocus sequence typing scheme to differentiate individual strains of C. parapsilosis instead revealed fixed DNA sequence differences between pairs of subgroups in four genes: COX3, L1A1, SADH, and SYA1. PCR amplicons for sequencing were obtained for these four plus a further seven genes from 21 group I isolates. For nine group II isolates, PCR products were obtained from only 5 of the 11 genes, and for two group III isolates PCR products were obtained from a different set of 5 genes. Three of the PCR products from group II and III isolates differed in size from the group I products. Cluster analysis of sequence polymorphisms from COX3, SADH, and SYA1, which were common to the three groups, consistently separated the isolates into three distinct sets. All of these differences, together with DNA sequence similarities <90% in the ITS1 sequence, suggest the subgroups should be afforded species status. The near absence of DNA sequence variability among isolates of C. parapsilosis and relatively high levels of sequence variability among isolates of C. orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter.
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            Relative frequency of albicans and the various non-albicans Candida spp among candidemia isolates from inpatients in various parts of the world: a systematic review.

            Candidemia is among the leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections and is associated with significant mortality. Several centers have published data regarding the incidence and relative frequency of Candida spp. We performed a systematic review to summarize and evaluate the available evidence regarding the distribution of the relative frequency of Candida spp isolated from blood, according to geographic region and study design, during the period 1996 to 2009. We searched PubMed and Scopus and retrieved 81 relevant articles reporting data on the relative frequency of Candida spp. C. albicans was the predominant species in almost all studies. The highest proportion of C. albicans was found in North and Central Europe and the USA. Non-albicans species were more common in South America, Asia, and South Europe. C. glabrata was commonly isolated in the USA and North and Central Europe; C. parapsilosis in South America, South Europe, and several parts of Asia; and C. tropicalis in South America and Asia. The relative frequency of C. krusei was low in all regions. Significant differences were noted depending on study design (surveillance study, multicenter or single centre, prospective or retrospective) and setting (hospital or intensive care unit). Significant geographic variation is evident among cases of candidemia in different parts of the world. Local epidemiological data continue to be of major significance. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Epidemiology of opportunistic fungal infections in Latin America.

              This review discusses the epidemiology of the most clinically relevant opportunistic fungal infections in Latin America, including candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis, aspergillosis, and fusariosis. The epidemiologic features, including incidence, of some of these mycoses are markedly different in Latin America than they are in other parts of the world. The most consistent epidemiologic data are available for candidemia, with a large prospective study in Brazil reporting an incidence that is 3- to 15-fold higher than that reported in studies from North America and Europe. Species distribution also differs: in Latin America, the most common Candida species (other than Candida albicans) causing bloodstream infections are Candida parapsilosis or Candida tropicalis, rather than Candida glabrata.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                0022-2615
                1473-5644
                July 01 2018
                July 01 2018
                : 67
                : 7
                : 903-914
                Affiliations
                [1 ] 1​Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine, Postgraduate Program in Medical Microbiology, Specialized Medical Mycology Center, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
                [2 ] 2​School of Veterinary Medicine, Postgraduate Program in Veterinary Sciences, State University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
                Article
                10.1099/jmm.0.000756
                © 2018

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