There are four possible pathophysiological mechanisms which may relate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: LVH diminishes left ventricular filling; LVH decreases coronary reserve and hampers myocardial oxygenation; LVH is commonly associated with ventricular arrhythmias, and with long-standing LVH, left ventricular contractility decreases. LVH can be reduced by a range of antihypertensive drugs, although not all drugs are equipotent in this regard. Two recent meta-analyses have indicated that ACE inhibitors are among the most powerful monotherapeutic modalities to reduce LVH. Calcium channel blockers are almost as effective, whereas β-blockers and diuretics seem to have a lesser effect, despite equipotent antihypertensive properties. Reducing LVH with ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers has been shown to improve contractility and left ventricular filling, and diminish ventricular ectopy. A preliminary study also indicates that coronary reserve increases after reduction in LVH. Despite these promising pathophysiological signs, it remains unknown whether or not a reduction in LVH will reduce morbidity and mortality over and above the reduction achieved by a reduction in arterial pressure alone.