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      Histopathological Differential Diagnosis of Psoriasis and Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp

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          Abstract

          Background

          The differential diagnosis of psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis can be difficult when both conditions are localized to the scalp without the involvement of other skin sites.

          Objective

          We aimed to evaluate the histopathological differences between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp and identify favorable criteria for their differential diagnosis.

          Methods

          We evaluated 15 cases of psoriasis and 20 cases of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp that had been clinicopathologically diagnosed. Skin biopsy sections stained with H&E were examined. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed, including Ki-67, keratin 10, caspase-5, and GLUT-1.

          Results

          On histopathological examination, mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, and clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges were significantly more frequently observed in psoriasis. Follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis were significantly more common in seborrheic dermatitis. Moreover, significantly higher mitotic figures were observed in psoriatic lesions than in seborrheic dermatitis. Immunohistochemistry did not show any difference between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis.

          Conclusion

          Histopathological features favoring psoriasis include mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges, and increased mitotic figures (≥6/high-powered field). Features indicating seborrheic dermatitis are follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis. Immunohistochemistry was not helpful in differentiating psoriasis from seborrheic dermatitis.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Caspase-5 expression is upregulated in lesional psoriatic skin.

          The inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein complex with two major functions: recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns and reacting to these through activation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. In this study, we characterized the expression of inflammasome components in psoriatic skin and other common inflammatory skin diseases. Human skin biopsy specimens, cultured primary human keratinocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and semiquantitative western blotting. mRNA expression of the inflammasome components NALP1, NALP3, ASC, caspase-1, caspase-4, and caspase-5 was detected in psoriatic skin. Interestingly, we found an extensive, 20-fold upregulation (P<0.01) of caspase-5 mRNA in lesional compared with nonlesional psoriatic skin, whereas caspase-1, caspase-4, and ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with CARD domain) mRNAs were upregulated by only 1.5- to 2.6-fold (P<0.01). Caspase-5 mRNA was not increased in biopsies from other inflammatory skin diseases, suggesting that this finding could be psoriasis specific. In vitro experiments revealed that caspase-5 mRNA was induced in primary keratinocytes as well as PBMCs stimulated with IFN-γ. Inhibition studies suggested that caspase-5 mRNA upregulation was mediated through the NF-κB pathway. Our findings suggest that caspase-5 and the inflammasome may have an important role in the inflammatory response in psoriasis.
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            Plaque psoriasis vs. atopic dermatitis and lichen planus: a comparison for lesional T-cell subsets, epidermal proliferation and differentiation.

            T-cell infiltration in plaque psoriasis has recently been an important subject of investigation. Interestingly, comparative analyses of the disease-specific composition of the lesional T-cell infiltrate in plaque psoriasis and other inflammatory dermatoses have only sparsely been performed. To compare plaque psoriasis vs. atopic dermatitis and lichen ruber planus with respect to T-cell subsets, epidermal proliferation and keratinization. Biopsies were taken from untreated lesional skin of patients, six with psoriasis, six with atopic dermatitis and six with lichen planus. T-cell subsets (CD4+, CD8+, CD45RO+, CD45RA+, CD2+, CD25+), an epidermal proliferation (Ki-67) and a keratinization marker (K10) were stained immunohistochemically and quantified using image analysis. The high number of CD8+ T cells (52 +/- 13 cells mm(-1)) found in the psoriatic epidermis was not found in the epidermis of atopic dermatitis (9 +/- 4), nor in the epidermis of lichen planus (34 +/- 10). The other T-cell subsets in the epidermis and dermis showed no statistically significant differences between psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. In contrast to the limited presence of CD4+, CD8+ and CD2+ in the psoriatic dermis (110 +/- 19, 27 +/- 9, 127 +/- 41, cells mm(-1), respectively), more impressive numbers of these cells were observed in the dermis of lichen planus (300 +/- 53, 144 +/- 38, 272 +/- 48, respectively). CD45RO+ memory effector T-cell counts were significantly higher in the epidermis of lichen planus (39 +/- 10) than in psoriasis (19 +/- 5). Psoriatic epidermis proved to have major keratinocyte hyperproliferation (247 +/- 26 cells mm(-1) lamina basalis), as compared with atopic dermatitis (134 +/- 15) and lichen planus (128 +/- 20). Furthermore, a marked decreased expression of keratin 10 was observed in psoriasis (41% of epidermal area) contrary to atopic dermatitis (70%). Psoriatic epidermis exhibits a pronounced CD8+ epidermotropism with accompanying epidermal hyperproliferation and abnormal keratinization, which changes are only minimally expressed in atopic dermatitis and lichen planus. In plaque psoriasis, substantially fewer activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the dermis and less CD45RO+ T cells in the epidermis are present in comparison with lichen ruber planus.
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              Weedon's Skin Pathology

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ann Dermatol
                Ann Dermatol
                AD
                Annals of Dermatology
                Korean Dermatological Association; The Korean Society for Investigative Dermatology
                1013-9087
                2005-3894
                August 2016
                26 July 2016
                : 28
                : 4
                : 427-432
                10.5021/ad.2016.28.4.427
                4969470
                27489423
                Copyright © 2016 The Korean Dermatological Association and The Korean Society for Investigative Dermatology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Dermatology

                psoriasis, differential diagnosis, scalp, seborrheic dermatitis

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