Plasma LH, FSH and testosterone were measured in testosterone-treated and untreated cryptorchid and castrated male rats. Exogenous testosterone prevented the increase in basal LH but not FSH levels seen in the untreated cryptorchids. Increases in plasma LH and FSH in response to LH-RH were greater in the cryptorchid as compared to the control group and this could not be reversed by exogenous testosterone, suggesting that spermatogenesis-related feedback factors regulate LH as well as FSH at the pituitary level in the intact rat. The results were consistent with a reduced but nevertheless significant secretion of inhibin by the cryptorchid testis. Basal plasma testosterone levels and ventral prostate weights were not significantly different from intact animals.