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      Insecticidal, biological and biochemical response of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) to some indigenous weed plant extracts

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          Abstract

          In the current study; insecticidal, growth regulation, oviposition deterrence and repellency of petroleum ether extracts of Azadirachta indica, Penganum harmala, Datura stramonium, Tribulus terrestris and Chenopodium murale against 2nd instar larvae of housefly was investigated. Five different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were used through larval feeding and the mortality data was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 hrs. Highest mortality was induced by P. harmala (63.87%) followed by D. stramonium (62.78%), A. indica (53.84%), T. terrestris (41.86%) and C. murale (4.09%) after 72 h at 25% concentration, respectively. Increased mortality was observed with increased time duration and concentration. Longest larval duration (9.33 ± 0.33 days) and pupal duration (7.33 ± 0.33 days) days) was recorded in larvae treated with 25% concentration of P. harmala which also caused a decrease in the activity of AChE, ACP, AKP, α-Carboxyl, and β-Carboxyl enzymes. However, at 25% concentration, C. murale showed highest oviposition deterrence activity (81.88%) followed by D. stramonium (79.58%). In comet assay test, at highest concentration (25%) the mean comet tail lengths represented by Penganum harmala, Datura stramonium and Azadirachta indica (Reference plant) were 10.20 ± 0.49, 9.20 ± 0.37 and 7.80 ± 0.49 μm while percent DNA damage was 10.56 ± 0.77, 10.67 ± 1.62 and 8.11 ± 0.85% respectively compared to controls cells. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the presence of phenolic flavonoids, saponins, tannins as major functional groups. Further studies are needed to explore and thus, to incorporate weed plant extracts for the management of house flies.

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          The impact of molecular data on our understanding of bee phylogeny and evolution.

          Our understanding of bee phylogeny has improved over the past fifteen years as a result of new data, primarily nucleotide sequence data, and new methods, primarily model-based methods of phylogeny reconstruction. Phylogenetic studies based on single or, more commonly, multilocus data sets have helped resolve the placement of bees within the superfamily Apoidea; the relationships among the seven families of bees; and the relationships among bee subfamilies, tribes, genera, and species. In addition, molecular phylogenies have played an important role in inferring evolutionary patterns and processes in bees. Phylogenies have provided the comparative framework for understanding the evolution of host-plant associations and pollen specialization, the evolution of social behavior, and the evolution of parasitism. In this paper, we present an overview of significant discoveries in bee phylogeny based primarily on the application of molecular data. We review the phylogenetic hypotheses family-by-family and then describe how the new phylogenetic insights have altered our understanding of bee biology.
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            Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oils from Different Plants Against Three Stored-Product Insects

            This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 µl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC50 and LC99 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species.
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              Insecticidal properties of several essential oils on the house fly (Musca domestica L.).

              The insecticidal activity of 34 essential oils, extracted from plants, was screened against the house fly, Musca domestica L. under laboratory conditions. Essential oils from Pogostemon cablin proved to be the most efficient at a lethal dose of 3 microg/fly after topical application. Eight oils (P. roseum, O. vulgare, O. compactum, M. pulegium, O. basilicum, O. majorana, T. vulgaris and P. graveolens) were lethal in doses ranging from 10 to 20 microg (10, 13, 13, 13, 15, 17, 18 and 19 microg/fly, respectively). The lethal doses of another 13 oils were ascertained in the range 20-50 microg/fly, nine oils had lethal doses of 50-100 microg. For two oils, the lethal dose could not be for the topical application. In the fumigant test, the most efficient proved to be Mentha pulegium oil (4.7 microg/cm(2)). For 10 oils, a lethal dose between 5 and 10 microg/cm(2) was ascertained (T. bipinata, C. aurantifolia, T. occidentalis, T. matschiana, S. officinalis, T. vulgaris, M. quinquenervia, O. compactum, C. limonum and R. officinalis, respectively). For the other 10 oils a lethal dose from 10 but to 80 microg/cm(2) was ascertained, and for 13 oils the lethal dose was higher than the highest dose in the tests.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Saudi J Biol Sci
                Saudi J Biol Sci
                Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
                Elsevier
                1319-562X
                2213-7106
                29 May 2019
                January 2020
                29 May 2019
                : 27
                : 1
                : 106-116
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
                [b ]Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
                [c ]Department of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
                [d ]Department of Biochemistry, Government College Women University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. kashif.zahoor@ 123456gcuf.edu.pk
                Article
                S1319-562X(19)30096-8
                10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.05.009
                6933224
                31889824
                bb59bc97-12a9-4901-8bc8-1050dda92c76
                © 2019 King Saud University

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 25 April 2019
                : 22 May 2019
                : 28 May 2019
                Categories
                Article

                mortality, repellency, genotoxicity,enzyme inhibition,ftir,musca domestica

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